Saturday, March 14, 2020
The MEK lubricant and de Introduction A lubricantÃ¢â¬â¢s de-waxing process involves removal of paraffinic hydrocarbons so as to improve the pour point of the feed stock. The pour point of oil is the lowest temperature in which oil can flow, pour or move when refrigerated or cooled without disruption under certain fixed conditions.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The MEK lubricant and de-waxing method specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More De-waxing produces high yields of products of improved quality base oils. Waxes require isomerization for their conversion into lubricant base oils. De-waxing processes create pure un-branched hydrocarbon chains without either aromatic contents or unwanted hetero-atoms in gas to liquid (GTL) processes (Gary Handwerk, 2001).During the de-waxing process, the solvent is subjected to a mixture of the waxy oil. In the catalytic de-waxing mechanism, wax components are reduced in the reaction to recapture the de-waxed oil molecules. A de-waxing process involves prior solvent extraction before the process is done. Heavy gas and oil from a refinery that is usually at very high temperatures is usually the feed stream. The gas is usually at high temperatures of 95 degrees Fahrenheit. This fact allows the feedstock not to crystallize. Shock treatment can cause formation of small crystals by the wax which would block the filter cloth during filtration process hence lowing wax recovery (Speight, 2010). The solvent is usually of equal temperature with the wax stream. It is then filtered through rotary filters. The primary rotary filter separates the stream into de-waxed oil or wax solvent stream. The de-waxed oil stream undergoes heat integration and continues to solvent recovery process. The wax or oil stream proceeds to the secondary filter. Here, it is separated into mostly solvent and wax with 3wt% oil content. The oily wax is de-oiled by re-melting to release trapped oil. The final filteri ng step is the tertiary filter. It separates waxes into hard and soft ones. Soft wax is recycled and hard one is re-slurred and purified to food grade wax. De-waxing products can be categorized into two: 1. Base oil which is used to make lube oil for automotive and industrial lubricants and for production of automatic transmission fluids.2. Food grade wax which is used to produce sealants. Crayons, cosmetics, foods and candles are also produced from this wax. LubricantsÃ¢â¬â¢ oil de-waxing methods Lubricant manufacturers may use either catalytic or urea de-waxing or solvent waxing. During the catalytic de-waxing process, there is usually selective removal of lighter non- normal hydrocarbons and also an even removal of normal paraffin. Urea de-waxing is normally used to produce low pour points using urea.Advertising Looking for research paper on chemistry? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This process of de-waxing is good for recovering refrigeration and transformer oils because no refrigeration is required. It is important to include a desirable solvent because urea has no MEK properties. The viscosity of the oil has negative results in its contact between oil and urea. Difficulties are encountered during filtration, hence the addition of solvents. MSDWÃ¢â¬â¢s process This process uses a two-stage cascade system. It is shaped like a selective de-waxing catalyst in the second stage (Fleig, 2005). This system is highly flexible and functions with hydrogen pressures between 27 to 207 bars. The waxy oil and the hydrogen are mixed and then heated. They are then directed to the top of the de-waxing reactor. Downstream, the by-products which are basically low sulfur distillate, high-octane, naphtha and hydrogen-rich recycled gas are separated from the lube base oil (Pujado Jones, 2006). Propylene- acetoneÃ¢â¬â¢s de-waxing process Propylene and acetone is the solvent mixture in this process. This process is adaptable to de-waxing plants that utilize propane instead of MEK (Fahim, Al-ShhafElkilani, 2009).Crystallization as a process is complex as it is usually determined by the rate of cooling of crystals. High and low cooling has an impact of the speed of the crystallization process and the quality of formed crystals. Propane is widely available as a byproduct in refineries and therefore its utilization is easier. This process leads to production of elements with low pour points, low refrigeration loads and reduced filter usages. Industrial technological research should focus on creation of catalysts that enhance the de-waxing of propylene and acetone instead of overreliance on products like propane. This fact would ensure that the performance of the solvent raw materials in this process is enhanced. MEK de-waxing method Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) is an anti-oil solvent and thus dissolves little wax at low temperatures. It is a wax precipitating agent. Toluene is an oil solve nt that dissolves the oil. At low temperatures, it maintains fluidity. A combination of major solvents is used in solvent de-waxing. MEK has become the most commonly used anti solvent in modern times but over reliance on it could lead to possible depletion of raw materials used in making it and consequent production of counterfeit products in the market. Industrial experts have advised that more research should be done to create new anti-oil solvents to complement the use of MEK. Nature of MEK de-waxing MEK has a poor solvent power and selectivity of paraffinic elements. It precipitates the wax leaving the de-waxed base oil. Studies have shown that the combination of toluene and MEK solvents in de-waxing processes causes an optimum wax precipitation of 40-75 v %. With increased MEK, the oilÃ¢â¬â¢s viscosity index increases but the solid point is maintained.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The MEK lubricant and de-waxing method specifically for yo u for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Process of MEK Flow diagram shows a de-waxing process The solvents used in this process are MEK and toluene which are mixed with the wax or oil stream feed. The feedstock is usually of high temperature; about 95Ã °Farenheit therefore, the solvent added should have corresponding temperature. The solvent of the same temperature is again added. This fact prevents shock treatment. The mixture is then filtered through the rotary filters which separate the stream into de-waxed oil or wax solvent stream. Process variables MEK is highly preferred because of its distinct anti-oil solvent characteristic. All the other solvents have almost similar properties but MEK or toluene combination is the most commonly used one in refineries. High solvent as opposed to oil use improves the process of filtration. A high solvent facilitates faster crystal growth reducing the viscous nature of the varied streams. At 100 wt. % MEK, there is a signifi cant wax recovery. High cooling rates have been reported to form undesirable wax that is hard to filter since it blocks the filters. Surface pressure exchanger The heat exchanger is used for crystallization of the wax. The process involves the use of the mid of the heat exchanger, the heated stream flows inside as the coolant flows on the outside. Wax crystals form slowly as the stream cools (Prestoris, 2004).Advertising Looking for research paper on chemistry? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fact shows that there is usually poor heat conduction between the waxy feed and the coolant due to the formation of wax crystals. The surface heat exchanger contains scraper blades which are usually inconstant rotation (Gary et al, 2007). Their rotation removes clogged wax inside the pipe. This fact allows formation of more wax crystals. Figure 1 shows a surface heat exchanger Vacuum rotary filter Vacuum rotary filters are drums with a vacuum inside them covered by cloth. This fact prevents entry of the wax into the drum as the oil seeps in. This process removes any oil that might have been left in the wax. As the drum rotates, the scrapers remove the wax. It is deposited into a collection basin where it is re-slurred and re-melted with more solvent. It is used in separation of aromatic impurities and naphthalene by precipitation or dissolving of the components. FiltersÃ¢â¬â¢ process operation In its operation; liquid is sent to tube units set below a drum. The drum cycles th rough the liquid and the vacuum pulls the solids away from the liquid into the drum pre-coat system. The liquid sucked through the filter causes the solid to stick to the outer surface of the drum. Figure 2 shows a vacuum rotary filter Maintenance and protection of the system Maintenance and protection of the system has to involve the maintenance of the various filters. The oil or the coolant filters has to be changed after every 500 hours so that they can clean away the contaminants. The oil separator has to be changed with change in oil for it to separate oil from air effectively. The drive belt has to be changed after 800 hours for effective performance. Other equipments used in this process include chillers with heat exchangers which gradually lower the temperature of the mixed stream of solvent and wax or oil to allow crystallization to take place. The others are the de-waxed oil and slack wax evaporators. Features of the vacuum rotary filters Their features include drum, val ve, drum deck, filter cloth, internal piping, agitator and the tank. These features are small in size and structure to facilitate faster operation. They are powerful and suffer low labor intensity making them easy to operate. The drum is supported by the trunnion which is set at the end of valve. It helps in formation of the vacuum cell at the bearing end. The valves are used to regulate the cycle sequence. Each portion is exposed to the vacuum, the dead zone and the blow. The valve contains adjustments blocks and fixed forms which creates the drying ratio in the filtration process. The internal piping can be single or double row piping to facilitate the channeling of the filtrates, steam and waste. The drum deck is separated into compartments waved to the vacuum or the rotating drum. The filter cloth acts as the cake tied to the drum face and itÃ¢â¬â¢s made from propylene or polyester. The agitator suspends the sludge material as the tank houses the drum and the agitator. Vacuum and rotary filtersÃ¢â¬â¢ process variables The process variables in rotary filtration involve temperature, pressure, solid content and particle size and distribution (Parkas, 2003). The variables define the present status of the process. The temperature is usually maintained high with operational temperatures going as high as 2000C. High temperatures are required for distillation, evaporation and thermal breakdown. Pressure is crucial and is maintained at 6 bars with the pressure filters taking different timing like 10 minutes for cake application and 8 hours for polishing. The solid contents take about 50% or more of the weight with the particle distribution being 1 to 2 microtones. Chillers These equipments are heat exchangers which gradually lower the temperature of the mixed stream of solvent and wax or oil to allow crystallization to take place (Lum, 2011). They are specially designed to scrap out the wax deposits in the heat exchanger surface so as to have efficient heat tr ansfer. Chilling involves direct heat transfer. Evaporators The evaporator is used in recovery of the solvent from the de-waxed oil and wax. Components include the motor which rotates the evaporating flask, vapor duct that channels the sample, vacuum system that reduces pressure, water bath for heating the sample and the condenser that acts as a coolant. Solvent recovery system The solvent recovery system supplies parts and services for recycling equipment, wastewater treatment and washing of parts. The process reduces the cost of disposing solvents and waste water charges. The solvent recovery system involves the following process as shown in the diagram. Solvent used The solvent de-waxing stem involves MEK, toluene, propane benzene ,methylene chloride, ethylene dichloride, sulfur dioxide and cyclohexane.MEK is used in industries in the dissolution of wax at low temperatures. MEK toluene propane benzene butane Boiling point(0C) 79.64 110.62 -43.7 31.1 31.1 Freezing(0C) poi nt -86.69 -94.99 -09.8 5.5 -2.17 Molecular weight 72.11 92.14 44.10 78.11 58.92 Vapor pressure(Torre) 74 28.5 0.13 0 o A graphical comparison of the various solvents as per the table is as follows Feedstock From Process Typical products to unit Lube base stock Vacuum tower Treating De-waxed lubes To Hydro-treating Wax To Hydro-treating Spent agents To Treatment or recycle Table : 24.2 Hydrocarbons Compounds derived Methane Methyl chloride, chloroform, methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, freon, hydrogen for synthesis of ammonia. Ethane Ethyl chloride, ethyl bromide, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethylene, ethyl acetate, nitro ethane, acetic anhydride. Ethylene Ethanol, ethylene oxide, glycol, vinyl chloride, glyoxalin, polyethene, styrene, butadiene, acetic acid. Propane Propanol, propionic acid, isopropyl ether, acetone, nitro methane, nitro ethane, nitro propane. Propylene Glycerol, alkyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, acrolein, nitroglycerine, dodecyl benzene, cumin, Bakelite. Hexane Benzene, DDT, gammexane. Heptane Toluene Cycloalkanes Benzene, toluene, xylenes, adipic acid. Benzene Ethyl benzene, styrene, phenol, BHC (insecticide), adipic acid, nylon, cyclohexane, ABS detergents. Toluene Benzoic acid, TNT Benz aldehyde, saccharin, chloramine-T, benzyl chloride, benzyl chloride. A new development in lubricantsÃ¢â¬â¢ de-waxing processes The industry is facing a lot of development with respect to technological advancement. Nowadays, there is greater use of the skill in solvent extraction. Industries are producing edible vegetable oil from oil seeds and protein units that are nutritious and economically viable. Capital investment is prioritized. The industry is making efforts in investment and money making through incorporation of various ideas in respect to this industry. The food industry also applies the PEG-NaCl system to fragment small molecules like nucleic acids and peptides. Information on DNA purifi cation is important in generating biotechnological purified genetically material. Conclusion The MEK lubricant and de-waxing method have proven to be useful industrial components (Favennec, 2001). More research should be done to improve their performance in industrial processes. The government should allocate more funds to safeguard industrialists from fraudulent people who sell counterfeit products hence reducing the marketability of the MEK lubricant. The de-waxing method has also proved to be a resourceful one and scholars should devise easier ways of understanding the solvent extraction system, heat exchanger and the functioning of the filters because it is important considering that health and ethical standards have to be adhered to. References Fahim, A.M., Al-Shhaf, A.TElkilani, A. (2009).Fundamentals of petroleum refining. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science. Favennec, J.P. (2001).Petroleum Refining, Refinery operation and management.Paris, France: Editions Technip. Flei g, F. (2005).Oil Empire: Visions of prosperity in Austrian Galicia (Harvard Historical Studies. Harvard, United Kingdom: Harvard University Press. Gary, J. et al. (2007).Petroleum refining: technology and economic. New York, USA: CRC Press. Gary, H.J., Handwerk, E.G. (2001).Petroleum Refining. New York City, USA: Routledge Taylor Francis. Lum, G. (2011).The negotiation field book. Simple strategies to help one negotiate everything. New York City, USA: McGraw-Hill companies. Parkas, S. (2003).Refining process hand book. Burlington, USA: Elsevier Science. Prestoris, A. (2004).Compositional Analysis of Naphtha and Reformats. New York, USA: CRC Press, Pujado, R.P., Jones, J.S. (2006).Handbook of petroleum. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Springer. Speight, G.J. (2010).The refinery of future. Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier Science.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Human Resources Management in Agricultural Industry - Research Proposal Example Actually this name was there in the last century itself. It is used to serve the interest of the employee and the employer. It has become very effective in recent years and both public and private organizations have benefited significantly, to attain greater benefits for the establishment in future. (Massy, 1996). In recent years, increased competition among organizations in different spheres, has led to improvement in the performance of staff and increase in productivity. Career opportunities have also increased considerably. Organizations are doing their best for training staff to increase their performance and productivity. In addition, they have plans to develop a strategy to increase revenues and reduce costs. This task has become the responsibility of the Human Resources Management Division, which has become the pillar of every organization. (Becker& Gerhard, 1996). In this study, I go across to a study of human resources management in a large agricultural company in Saudi Arabia to determine how the application of some strategies of human resources helped to boost performance, increase productivity and reduce expenses. The title of this research is "Training Program in Almarai Agricultural Company." In this paper I will explain the method of training of this company so that the employee makes effort to increase performance and productivity. The Department of Human Resources Management is n... The research accounts for answers to the following: Does the training program satisfy purpose expected of it What is the function of the multi-purpose training program What effect does the Saudi Arabian culture have on the area of work in the company What is the opinion of graduates about the training program in the company What is the opinion of trainers about the training program in the company The research background: The Department of Human Resources Management is not a manufacturing unit and so cannot bring any profit to the organization through its product. But the strategy can bring about higher production and put an end to waste of time, which will help a long way in increasing the production and ultimately bringing in better profit to the organization. The Fundamental objective of human resources is to increase efficiency, performance and productivity (Becker & Gerhart, 1996). One of the most important needs of any organization is to develop and improve employee performance. The organization, on its part, should consider the development of its members, which would have a bearing on the ultimate results of the organization. Some studies have shown that members of the Organization could have negative or positive influence on any organization through the performance and behavior. (Boselie, 2005) Human resources management is of great help to the organization as it can improve performance of the organization and the employee. If the organization can train the staff efficiently to gain exceptionally good performance from them, it can help the organization to compete in the market. The staff member must make every effort to improve in all respects during the training period. The trainer must ensure to
Monday, February 10, 2020
Paper Proposal - Assignment Example The challenges begin right after birth, when members of the society expect the parents of the newly born baby to communicate the gender of the baby (Poisson 365). The society places a lot of undue attention, towards the gender of individuals, right from childhood. Two research questions are used in the study. First, do genderless individuals have adequate recognition in the society? Second, do genderless individuals possess capabilities and competencies needed for societal development? The two questions discuss the needs of genderless individuals in the society (Steensma et al 291). The primary data sources utilized in the research involves interviews and questionnaires. Parents will be given interview questions, to mainly determine if gender recognition plays a significant role in the development of their children (Hiffman & Hurst 205). Secondary sources will also be applied in the research to collect information. Textbooks, journal and magazines will be analyzed for information related to the areas of; gender differences, genderless individuals, role of gender in development, and scientific perspective towards gender differences and roles (Steensma et al
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Indian European Relations in the 1600s Essay Spain in North America 1560s: Spanish give up search for Indian gold. Focus on defending their empire from English (who were plundering treasure ships and Caribbean ports) and French Protestants (who began to settle in Florida though the Spanish had already claimed the land). Spanish establish fort at St. Augustine, Florida (1565) to protect route of the treasure fleet. They also massacre French Protestants. Raids by Native Americans wipe out military outposts and religious missions. 1573: The Comprehensive Order for New Discoveries says that missionaries, not conquistadors, have to pacify the land. Franciscan friars set up missions in Nuevo MÃ ©xico (New Mexico) and attack Native Americans. Native Americans do forced labor. 1680: PopÃ © leads revolt, kills 400 Spaniards and forces remaining 1500 to flee to El Paso, and destroys Spanish missions (Pueblo Revolt of 1680). Spaniards return, Native Americans make a deal that lets them practice their own religion and end forced labor, but they have to help the Spaniards. Outcome: Spanish fail to convert Native Americans, Santa Fe left vulnerable. In Florida, raids by English leave St. Augustine vulnerable. French in North America 1608: First permanent settlement, Quebec, is founded 1662: King Louis XIV turns New France into a royal colony, tries to get people to move there. Cannot get enough people. New France becomes an area for trading furs. Rise of the Iroquois: French introduce diseases that kill many Indians. Indians get guns from fur trade, which leads to war. The Five Iroquois Nations come out on top, have control of the fur trade in Quebec (with the French) and New Amsterdam (with the Dutch). French Jesuits try to win Indian converts. They do not exploit the Indians, and they come to understand their culture. They eventually win converts by adapting Christianity to the needs of the Indians. Outcome: Despite efforts of the Jesuits, French fur trade causes devastation through disease and loss of Indian culture. Iroquois warriors kill many, though they too are harmed: French burned their villages and killed many warriors in 1666 and again in 1690. Dutch in North America Dutch set up a fur-trading post (Fort Orange) along the Hudson River. West India Company has monopoly on the fur. Later, Dutch founded New Amsterdam and made it the capital of New Netherland. Colony didnÃ¢â¬â¢t thrive: small population made it vulnerable. Fort Orange succeeds as a peaceful and successful fur-trading post. Dutch near New Amsterdam are more aggressive towards Indians. 1640: war. After the war, West India Company ignores New Netherland, focuses on slave trade. 1664: Dutch fall under control of the English under the Duke of York 1673: Dutch assault momentarily recaptures the colony Edmund Andros takes control, in retaliation imposes English law and demands allegiance. Outcome: Dutch, who had once been dominant, are now a subject people. Chapter 6: Making War and Republican Governments (1776-1789) Patriots demand that colonists join Loyalist or Patriot side Ã¢â¬â cannot stay neutral. Patriots have advantage to get supporters b/c they control local governments. Patriots make army, and Patriots encouraged people to support the army by taking a more active role in govt. Character of politics changes when common people exert influence: democratic army launches age of republican revolution. Americans forced to retreat, Britain pushed back Americans into PA. When winter comes, Britain halts their campaign and Patriots catch them off guard, winning small victories. Armies and Strategies Howe doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to destroy Americans, just wants them to surrender and compromise. Howe cannot win decisive victory, Washington avoids defeat. WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s handicaps: Fights only defensively, has unfit recruits, Radical Whig Patriots believe army is threat to liberty. American Victory at Saratoga BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s goal: isolate New England NorthÃ¢â¬â¢s colonial secretary GermainÃ¢â¬â¢s plan: attack Albany from 3 sides. Burgoyne, St. Leger, and Howe will attack. HoweÃ¢â¬â¢s different plan: attack Philadelphia (home of Continental Congress), end rebellion w/ single victory. Howe uses his plan slowly. Continental Congress flees to PAÃ¢â¬â¢s interior. HoweÃ¢â¬â¢s slow attack directly leads to defeat of BurgoyneÃ¢â¬â¢s army. BurgoyneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions: fights, then stalls. Americans led by General Gates slows BurgoyneÃ¢â¬â¢s progress. BurgoyneÃ¢â¬â¢s army stuck in Saratoga, NY. Beaten back while trying to raid VT. Has troops w/drawn to help Howe. Meanwhile, GatesÃ¢â¬â¢ forces grow. October 1777: Burgoyne forced to surrender. Turning point of the war. Social and Financial Perils British naval blockade causes disruption in New England fishing industry, and British occupation causes decrease in domestic trade and manufacturing. People move out, decrease in population. Chesapeake colonies: blockade cuts tobacco exports. Short supply of goods = army starts getting supplies from the people. Women and Household Production Women: 1 Increase output of homespuns 2 Participate in farmwork Despite this, goods remain scarce and prices rise. War also created deprivation, displacement, and death. War divides communities b/c of PatriotsÃ¢â¬â¢ violence. Financial Crisis State govts are weak, donÃ¢â¬â¢t create new taxes. Creation of fiat money, Continental Congress and coloniesÃ¢â¬â¢ economies crumble. Valley Forge Starvation and sickness for Americans during the winter in Valley Forge, but Baron von Steuben raises morale. Continental army becomes tougher and better disciplined. The Path to Victory, 1778-1783 1778: Continental Congress allies w/ France. Alliance gives Continental Congress money, supplies, and later troops. Also confronts Britain w/ international war that challenges domination of Atlantic. The French Alliance Alliance starts w/ secret loan to colonies to avenge FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s loss of Canada to Britain. Later turns into a formal alliance. Negotiating the Treaty American diplomats ensure treaty specifies that French support cannot end until the United States is independent. Alliance revives colonies and Continental Congress. The British Response War is becoming unpopular in Britain. Some British support Americans and campaign for domestic reforms. George III initially committed to crushing rebellion, but after British defeat at Saratoga changes his mind. Tries to prevent American and French alliance (Parliament repeals Tea Act, Prohibitory acts, and renounces right to tax colonies). War in the South French and Spanish (who joined the war against Britain in 1779) agendas cause British to shift focus of the war to the South. BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Southern Strategy British plan: 1 Focus on winning tobacco and rice colonies (VA, Carolinas, GA) then rely on local Loyalists to hold them 2 Exploit racial divisions between slaves and Patriot owners Ã¢â¬â get slaves to flee At first, British are winning. But tide turns. Dutch join fight against British. France dispatches troops to America Partisan Warfare in the Carolinas General Green fights in Carolinas. Fighting goes back and forth. Britain is weakened by this war of attrition, and British decide to give up Carolinas to Greene and focus on VA instead. Benedict Arnold and Conflicting Loyalties Benedict Arnold switched from American side to British side. Fights for George III in VA. Britain Defeated Washington and the French fleet surround Cornwallis and his troops on land. Cornwallis is outnumbered, cannot escape by sea. October 1781: Cornwallis surrenders in Yorktown The Patriot Advantage Why the Americans won the war: 1 Some British mistakes 2 Widespread Patriots in America 3 Many Americans support war through taxes and joining the militia 4 Patriots led by experienced politicians 5 George Washington Americans refuse to support British army, refuse to accept occupation by Loyalist forces, and endure the inflation caused by the war. Diplomatic Triumph Peace talks begin in 1782, but French and Spanish stall b/c they still hope for major naval victory or territorial conquest. Ignoring Treaty of Alliance, Americans sign a separate peace w/ the British. September 1783: Treaty of Paris. Great Britain recognizes independence of the colonies. Britain gets: 1 Canada 2 Rights for merchants to pursue legal claims for prewar debts 3 Americans will encourage state legislatures to return confiscated property to Loyalists and grant them citizenship America gets: 1 Great Lakes and land east of the Mississippi River 2 Fishing rights 3 Freedom of navigation on the Mississippi 4 British cannot seize property like slaves 1783: Treaty of Versailles Ã¢â¬â Britain makes peace w/ France and Spain Chapter 10: Creating Republican Institutions, 1776 Ã¢â¬â 1787 The State Constitutions: How Much Democracy? Many states had written state constitutions when the Continental Congress urged them to in 1776. The Rise of Popular Politics, 1820-1829 Expansion of the franchise = most democratic symbol of the Democratic Revolution. Gives ordinary men more power than anywhere else in the world. The Decline of the Notables and the Rise of Parties American Revolution weakened the deferential society, but didnÃ¢â¬â¢t overthrow it. Wealthy notables still dominated the political system at first. 1810: Struggle to expand suffrage began. State legislatures grant broader voting rights to diffuse criticism and deter migration to the west. The new voters refused to support politicians that flaunted their high social status. Democratic politics is corrupt. Martin Van Buren: 1 Created political machine, the Albany Regency. 2 Patronage: gives government jobs to party members in return for their loyalty. (Spoils system) 3 Insists on party discipline, requires elected officials to follow dictates of the party caucus. The Election of 1824 Five candidates, all Republicans, campaigned for presidency. Jackson received most popular votes, but Adams won because Clay made a Ã¢â¬Å"corrupt bargainÃ¢â¬ with Adams, where Clay would vote Adams into presidency if he would become secretary of state. Presidency of John Quincy Adams: the last notable president Supports American System (protective tariffs, national bank, subsidized internal improvements) Resistance to the American System: southerners oppose protective tariffs because they raised the price of manufactures, and smallholders feared powerful banks that could force them into bankruptcy. Politicians oppose American System on constitutional grounds (for example, saying that the national governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s income couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fund state improvement projects because those projects were the responsibility of the states). Southerners were also angry about the Tariff of 1828, which raised duties on raw materials and textiles. Southerners also dislike AdamsÃ¢â¬â¢s pro-Indian policy. Jacksonian Impact 1 Expanded potential authority of President by identifying it with the voice of the people. 2 Upheld national authority by threatening use of military force, laying foundation for LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s later defense of the Union. 3 Reinvigorated Jeffersonian tradition of limited central government by undermining American System of national banking, protective tariffs, and internal improvements. 4 Undermined constitutional jurisprudence of Marshall by appointing Taney as MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s successor. Taney partially reversed nationalist and property-rights decisions of Marshall. Example: In the case Charles River Bridge Co. v. Warren Bridge Co. (1837), Taney says that a charter doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily bestow a monopoly, and a legislature could charter competition (in this case, a competing bridge co.) to help the public. This decision directly challenges what Marshall said in the Dartmouth College v. Woodward case, where Marshall stresses the binding nature of a contract by saying that a state cannot invalidate a contract. Other cases that place limits on MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s nationalistic interpretations by enhancing role of state governments: Mayor of New York v. Miln (1837): New York state can use Ã¢â¬Å"police powerÃ¢â¬ to inspect health of immigrants. Briscoe v. Bank of Kentucky (1837): When it issues currency, a bank owned by the Kentucky doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t violate the provision of the Constitution that prohibits states from issuing Ã¢â¬Å"bills of credit.Ã¢â¬ As a result of the Taney CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions, the role of state governments in commerce was greatly enhanced. 5 States write new constitutions that extend democracy, many of which introduce classical liberalism (laissez-faire). Laissez-faire says the government role in the economy should be limited.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Choosing to sponsor a community based reforestation project on a large Caribbean Island would yield the most satisfying returns in terms of biodiversity, sustainability, and the goals of the project. Allowing the community to become involved in the project will make them feel invested in their environment and will help produce an environmentally healthy awareness amongst the islanders. Though restoring a lake habitat in New York has its merits, the Caribbean project will be a better investment of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s money. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Studies confirm that biodiversity increases with respect to four factors: latitude, elevation, isolation, and successional stage. The first two factors obviously favor the Caribbean Island in that it is located closer to the equator and to sea level. New York is at a higher elevation and is not close to being in any tropical zones. In terms of isolation, neither location seems to be at an advantage over the other one. The New York habitat is located in an industrial sector meaning that it is not connected with extensive forests that could contribute to the diversity of the area. Islands obviously experience a notable amount of isolation but this does nothing to cancel the effect of its latitude location. The industrial sector undoubtedly leaks a significant amount of chemical pollution into the area that may hinder the progress of achieving successful reforestation. The successional stage can be assumed to be equivalent given that both areas are in need of refores tation. The arguments for biodiversity clearly stand in favor of the Caribbean project. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The sustainability of each system suggests that the tropical forest is once again the wiser choice. An industrial sector of New York is likely to be mostly human dominated. In such environments, the renewable resources such as clean air and water will probably already be overused by the human population thus stressing a system that is already at a disadvantage. In order to achieve successful sustainability, more prominence must be given to factors like recycling, conservation, restoration, and limited growth. By making the Caribbean project community based, the inhabitants of the island will have the opportunity to learn these important principles and ensure the regions sustainability. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There is certainly a need for reforestation throughout the world. Even though this location is outside the United States, it is still important for us to assist these people with reforestation.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Higher Education Institutions need to continually adapt to meet the needs of students, employers, and society in general. In order to meet these needs, the theoretical knowledge and skill-based components required by graduates when entering the workforce must be constantly reviewed. As a consequence, academics face constant challenges in developing innovative teaching practices, activities promoting skill development, and assessment tasks which will equip graduates with the necessary employability skills for their profession, for lifelong learning, and for self-development. The use of reflective practice as an integral component of undergraduate assessment and skill development is observed across a variety of academic disciplines. Reflective practice is typically used across these disciplines to engage students in the development of self reflection skills and abilities, and in contextualizing the links between theoretical knowledge and professional experience and outcomes. Reflective practice can be defined as a learning process involving the examination of individual critical incidents and behaviors, the deconstruction of one experiencesÃ¢â¬â¢ in light of knowledge held, and the resultant formation of new knowledge which can be applied to personal or professional practice (Davis, 2003; Klenowski & Carnell, 2006; Murphy, Halton, & Dempsey, 2008; Pedro, 2005). Reflective practice is self-regulated, and engages the learner in a process of relating theory and practice (Kuiper & Pesut, 2004; Lesnick, 2005; Pavlovich, 2007). Research has indicated that the development of reflective practice skills, and the engagement of higher education students in this process allows for the examination of how personal experiences prompt learning, and how this learning relates to professional experience (Bates, 2008). The process of engaging in reflective practice allows the development of personal and professional skills which lead to an integration of personal knowledge and experience, academic theory and knowledge, and relevant professional experience (Donaghy & Morss, 2007; McMullan, 2006; Thorpe, 2004). In addition, this newly integrated and formed knowledge, through guided facilitation or supervision, can then be applied to future professional outcomes and experiences (OÃ¢â¬â¢Halloran, Hean, Humphris, & Macleod-Clark, 2006). Recent research highlights the need for reflective practice processes to be contextualised to the post-graduation employment sector students are preparing to practice within (Boud & Falchikov, 2006; Lesnick, 2005; Pedro, 2005). As such, it is recommended that student assessment be based upon students developing the skills for work which are needed beyond the university experience. Encompassed within the development of these skills, is the need for students to reflect upon and judge their learning experiences and achievements, determine how adequate their performance has been, critically engage in a process of selfreflection, and evaluate their performance (Hinett & Weeden, 2000; McMullan, 2006). This process initiated and developed through the teaching of and engagement in reflective practice, leads students to self-direct their learning, and work-tasks, identify and be motivated to develop areas for change, and promotes further learning. Hence, learning is contextualised through ref lective practice (Boud & Falchikov, 2006; Lesnick, 2005; Pedro, 2005). It is important to note reflective practice is not only beneficial to undergraduates, but also to university tutors, lecturers, and course coordinators (Clegg, Tan, & Saeidi, 2002; Crow & Smith, 2005; Pedro, 2005; Thorpe, 2000). Not dissimilar to that observed in students, the process of assessors examining student assessments containing prose written in the form of reflection, places academics in a position to question the perceived needs of students, and the curriculum being taught relative to (i) what modules are being taught in the curriculum, (ii) why specific curriculum modules are included within the course syllabus, (iii) if the curriculum modules are effective in meeting student and workplace needs, (iv) if curriculum modules need to be changed to better address the perceived needs and skills of students and workplaces, and (v) how can the identified curriculum modules be changed (Pedro, 2005). The analysis of student reflections can lead to an examination of the pros and cons of the current course curricula, and the redevelopment and realignment of this curricula to enhance student learning and skill development (Bulpitt & Martin, 2005; Kember, McKay, Sinclair, & Jess Heerde & Berni Murphy, Reflective Practice Annotated Bibliography, 2009 4 | PageWong, 2008). Furthermore, the transferability of skills from higher education into the workplace may be enhanced, and the employment opportunities for students post-graduation increased through assessment of student reflections (Bulpitt & Martin, 2005; Harris & Bretag, 2003; Pedro, 2005). It was my third semester being a student nurse where I posted at Hospital Selayang. The accidents happened on Thursday morning. There are about 8 patient on beds and some of them are tractions, having a wound dressing on leg and some having amputation. At that time, our CI is not around because she has to handle 2 wards. The accident occur when one of staff nurse assign me to do simple wound dressing. I and one of my members prepared all equipment needed to do wound dressing. After we finished completing equipment, we immediately go to the patient and start to dressing. Because of ward are too busy, we decided to do without any supervise by staff nurse. During dressing, the sister suddenly came and saw us do the dressing without supervise by CI. More badly, we forget to put inco-pad below patient leg. The sister shouted us to stop the dressing and leave from the patient. The sister said that we are not allowed to do any procedure without supervise by our CI. Then she blame us for not obey the guide line of wound dressing. I have to do a report about what occurred just now. After being scolded by sister and CI, I felt guilty and canÃ¢â¬â¢t stop think about it just a simple wound dressing I had made a mistake. At that time, I still blaming myself for the mistake I have done. I never thought that it will happen to me. I was shocked and feel scared because I not doing the procedure in supervised by my own CI and caught by sister in ward. This is the first time I heard sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s voice and facing in front of me. I became numb, speechless and my mind turns to blank and empty. I felt very guilty and I cannot stop thinking it every time I went to posting area. I felt very stressful because sister was annoyed. I will take this accident as a great lesson to make a change in me in future. As I analyzed and encounter the situation, I reflect myself on how it could be occurred and happened to me. the first and the main point are, I felt very confident in accomplishing the wound dressing procedure. This is because I felt that the procedure was simple so I obey the guideline of wound dressing in which I forgot to put incontinence pad and failed to maintain sterility on my field. Beside that, because of lack of knowledge I had also made my dressing procedure become complicated to handle. I also realized that my level of knowledge of wound dressing still low. Little experiences are not enough to master wound dressing procedure. Furthermore, I realized by doing the procedure without supervised by CI of staff nurse. I made a big mistake which is not followed the role as a student nurse. I should not do anything without supervised by CI. Obey CI instruction is a bad behavior that I have to change to be a good student. In my point of view, I feel that the situation could change in the future is I must do more practice on my wound dressing procedure. At this time, I need more knowledge to answer sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s question and most importantly, I must be careful in maintaining sterility so that I will not be scolded by sister. The implication of mistaken the wound dressing principle to the institution are, the students from same institution will be rejected from that hospital because of less quality. The student nurse will encounter self low-esteem to face patient because of their seniors. Plus, the family members will lost belief in our work and not allow the student to do any procedure on the patient. Besides that, they will not trusting to my own institution and we have to hand over to staff nurse in-charges. In my recommendation, I could improve my skill to change in the future by a continuously practice in correct way of dressing. The repeated practice of wound dressing will help me to enable a good skill on that procedure. My theories are still in lower position. So, I have to gain more knowledge and information to make it perfect. The skill will be more skillful by supervise from the CI. She will correct any error while I am doing any procedure and added with some brilliant point. Beside that, I must make sure that all equipments are complete without missing any apparatus in doing wound dressing. I have to double check to minimize risk of forgotten equipment. With all this, the result of being mistake will be zero. I am not aware that all nurses should being in a collaborative network that foster partnering with others. This is because most of the nurse today receive perception during their orientation to a clinical position or coaching for a special project or promoting they are spires them. Beside that, I also being aware that if someone to be more perfect to done a wound dressing. We must need a concept of mentoring in nursing and suggest its strongest relationship is as a Ã¢â¬Ëteaching learning process for the socialization of nurse scholars and scientists and the proliferation of a body of professional knowledgeÃ¢â¬â¢ (steward and Krueger, 1996). This is because a student a student must need a help from their CI will tell his or her student for what is wrong or what is right. I also being aware of the nurse need to broaden their connection with others so that each nurse is introduced to the multiple benefits of being network. This is because of my scenario I did get any connection the staff nurse to observe me done a dressing made my mistake. it would be advantages to begin getting involved with this mentoring spirit early in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s career. It is known that nurse who had been mentors tend to mentor other (Vancer & Olson (1998); Yoder (1998)) In this scenario, I have learnt from my experience need an mentoring in nursing encompassed a guided experience, formally or in formerly assigned, over a mutually agreed-on period, that empowers the mentor and mentee to develop personally and professionally with the auspices of caring; collaborative competent, and respect environment.