Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Managing diversity Toward global workplace -

Question: Examine about the Managing decent variety Toward worldwide work environment. Answer: Prologue to our implicit rules 7-Eleven is committed to perform with trustworthiness, respectability and trust consistently exceptionally grinding away while speaking to the organization and in the wake of working hours. Our fundamental beliefs The chief and the workers of 7-Eleven Stores Pvt. Ltd are accepted to consistently act in congruity with set up destinations: To complete obligations regarding the money related markets and investors. To act with trustworthiness, honesty, reasonableness and be responsible for our choices. To guarantee a sheltered workplace for the representatives, approach the workers with deference and keep up esteem decent variety. To participate in business relationship with genuineness, keep up precision and protection of business records. This Code of Conduct sets out the managing goals that should be trailed by the 7-Eleven staff against which we will be considered responsible. Our standards The 7-Eleven faculty are required to act with the identified standards consistently. Segregation Unlawful segregation implies rewarding an individual or a gathering of individuals including the worldwide understudies inconsistent dependent on the grounds of unique highlights: Religion or political conviction, race, age or nationality Incapacity, conjugal status and family obligation Segregation further contains commitment in social lead that outcomes in the accompanying: Tormenting Terrorizing Deliberately change of work lists to make inconvenience to explicit gathering of representatives or especially any worker. Mental badgering Unlawful separation at working environment The Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) and the Australian Human Rights Commission Act 1986 (Cth) are Federal rules that concentrations at shielding individuals from being exposed to business separation on close to home characteristics. The denial of representatives from accepting their compensation or leaves or causing burden for them that prompts work environment separation. In this manner, it is managed under the Fair Work Act 2009. The state level rules, for example, the Equal Opportunity Act 1984,Anti-Discrimination 1977 and Discrimination Act 1991 are additionally established to protect individuals from getting segregated on close to home attributes at state level. Representatives are required to: Illuminate about any unlawful separation happening at work environment to the Line director Agree to state just as an area laws and Commonwealth laws Submit legit question before the Fair Work Ombudsman while keeping up security of data. The representatives including the universal understudy must be guaranteed that they are not being one-sided subsequent to educating about event of work environment separation. Abuse The term abuse implies an out of line treatment with the representatives with a target to profit by their work (Shacklock and Galtung 2016). 7-Eleven stores Pty Ltd. carefully preclude misuse of their representatives including the universal understudies at working environment. The Code of Conduct forbids: Any unlawful oppression the representatives Badgering or harassing Undermining representatives against submitting questions about abuse According to the global understudies, the organization must ensure that: The International understudies who are filling in as workers are not oppressed of their lawful qualifications for the advantages of the business. Global understudies are constrained to neutralize the terms and states of their visa grant The International understudies filling in as representatives are not exposed to abuse dependent on their race, age or nationality. Global Students are not compromised for illuminating the Fair Work Ombudsman against any work environment abuse. The International Students must agree to the arrangements that are specified under the Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) as the enactment expresses that any issues emerging from underpayment and different types of abuse is managed by the enactments. Defilement The term Corruption alludes to a false movement where an individual adventures their situation of trust or increase advantage by acting against the interests of the individual the fake speaks to. Pay off alludes to a type of act that adds up to debasement and in this manner it is carefully limited by the Code (Barak 2016). In 7-Eleven, it is illicit for the work force: To control dealings of business for disallowing control in the authoritative exchanges To offer and acknowledge any non-customary installment or pay-offs for affecting choices identified with business. To stay away from any sensible preliminaries that guarantees the work force including the middle people, contractual workers and the colleagues that are acting in consistence with this Code, hostile to pay off strategies and different laws identified with this. Hostile to Bribery strategies Hostile to pay off activities are not predictable with the standards of trustworthiness and decency that may adversy affect the generosity of the association just as that of the providers, speculators, investors and buyers of the association (Barak 2016). This Code carefully bans connecting with into any undermined exercises and commits consistence with the Competition and Consumer Act just as other equal enactments pertinent to the business exercises of the association. Deceptive and Fraudulent Behavior Activities that is probably going to deceive and submit misrepresentation to any substance or individual that prompts false and untrustworthy conduct bringing about money related misfortune to such individual or element. Exploitative and fake conduct comprises of: Deception in cost claims Compensation records being controlled Misuse of legitimate qualifications and wages of representatives Deceptive and deceitful distortion of budgetary execution reports Returning to Dishonest and Fraudulent Behavior The 7-Eleven staff are expected to whine about any false and untrustworthy sort of conduct. The organization ought to keep up mystery and secrecy of representatives submitting such questions to ensure that such complainants are not defrauded. Taking duties towards money related markets and investors The business activities of 7-Eleven must: To keep from conveying any close to home data to other individual or any element that is managing the protections of the organization or different substances while such an individual has been made mindful of within close to home data identifying with such protections. To make sure with straightforwardness and trustworthiness in exposure, budgetary announcing and different commitments as specified in the ASX Listing Rules and in the Corporations Act, 2001 (Cth). Informant security The particular standards must be followed to defend informants: Raising Concern Any representative including the universal understudies is allowed to raise concern with respect to any working environment related worry under the Whistleblower Protection Officers (WPO) and the Risk Management group of the organization either legitimately or by covertly mailing about the said concern. Hasty Conduct Following are the exercises that will prompt inappropriate direct, that is carefully restricted by this Code of Conduct: Badgering, separation or harassing Any demonstration encroaching the lawful commitment under any legitimate agreement Any type of adulterated, unlawful, unscrupulous and false lead Hazardous work rehearses Insurance for Whistleblowers So as to fortify the informant assurances in the credit, corporate and monetary divisions, the Treasury Laws Amendment (Whistleblowers) Bill 2017 (the Bill) has been set up as a solitary principle under the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). It verifies that the examination with respect to the related worries of the work environment is being led in a moderate way. It expands a lot of exposures that are defended under the CA 2001 (Cth, for example, revelation about any lead that outcomes in ill-advised situation or offense The Bill grows the proficiency of the security reached out by the Act and extends the qualification of the informant under the said Act. It forces increasingly tough commitments to maintain protection in regards to the informants personality. Authorization If there should arise an occurrence of rebelliousness with the Code of Conduct, 7-Eleven must be qualified for fines and punishments. The organization or the workers might be exposed to criminal or common obligation or whatever other fiscal misfortune that may importantly affect the notoriety of the organization. The workers or the organization will be exposed to punishments or solutions for non-following any of the arrangements of the Code. Segregation and Exploitation The encroachment of this arrangement will subject the substance or the individual creation such contradiction to criminal or common liabilities or punishments under the enactments of state level, which are pertinent to the business activities. At the Federal level, it will be exposed to pertinent punishments as specified under the Fair work Act 2009 (Cth). False and beguiling conduct Any deceitful or deceptive lead will be exposed to disciplinary estimates, for example, punishments or common or criminal obligation under the AXS Listing Rules and the Corporation Act 2001 (Cth) Defilement The representatives or the organization will be qualified for punishments or common or criminal punishments as specified in the domain and state inside which the business does its tasks. In this manner, the Commonwealth enactments and obliges organizations from connecting with into undermined exercises, for example, the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) and Part IV of the Competition and Consumers Act 2010 (Cth) may likewise force punishments in case of encroachment of managementprovisions. Informant Protection The Corporations Act 2001 and the Australian Securities and Investment Commission (ASIC) shields the informant from being partial in the wake of educating about infringement of the authoritative arrangements submitted by the chief, worker or

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Ashikaga (Muromachi) Shogunate vs. the Minamoto (Kamakura) Shogunate Essay Sample free essay sample

Presentation The subject of this paper is medieval Japan. riding the three and a half hundreds of years between the thinking decennaries of the twelfth century when the Kamakura bakufu was built up and the mid-sixteenth century during which common wars raged following the powerful disappointment of the Muromachi bakafu. The sequential occasions and advancements of these exuberant hundreds of years delineate medieval Japan’s common request. financial framework. society. furthermore, civilisation. each piece great as its relationship with its Asiatic neighbors. This was the time of warriors. Consistently. the intensity of the warrior classification kept on lifting. furthermore, one political outcome of this improvement was the development of two warrior authoritiess. or on the other hand bakufu ( Hall ) . The Minamoto ( Kamakura ) Shogunate The inception of Japan’s first warrior removal. the Kamakura bakufu. portrayed both a termination and a hole. Since the tenth century. a logically professionalized classification of mounted fighting work powers had served in nearby nations as home chiefs and cops and as functionaries joined to the assortment meats of commonplace organization. We will compose a custom exposition test on The Ashikaga (Muromachi) Shogunate versus the Minamoto (Kamakura) Shogunate Essay Sample or then again any comparative subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page By the twelfth century. warriors had come to apply a predominant segment of the whole volume of neighborhood specialists. be that as it may, significantly after 200 mature ages they remained politically youthful. The most raised warriors were still simply center level figures in progressions overwhelmed by errand people and profound foundations in and close to the capital. The bakufu’s commencement during the 1180s along these lines spoke to an underlying revelation to control on the segment of choose fighting work powers. be that as it may, the fledging government was scarcely in a spot to assume unitary authority over the full state. What was developed was an arrangement of specialists come shutting a dyarchy. During the Kamakura time frame. Japan had two capitals and two interrelated setting of approval. The intensity of warrior power was clear bounty to the individuals who minded to envision it. in any case, the endowment of the past forestalled in excess of a moderate pro gression into the great beyond ( Varley ) . The Kamakura fascism was woefully tried when the Mongols endeavored twice to smother Japan with the biggest maritime task force ever collected. On the two events. the Mongol maritime powers was devastated off the coastline of Kyushu by tropical storms. which were calledkamikaze( divine air flows ) . The expense of developing military weapons in Kyushu added to the destruction of the Minamoto kinfolk. It was prevailing by the Ashikaga kinfolk. which moved its military funding to the Muromachi nation of Kyoto. As a result. Kyoto turned into the capital of both the magnificent council and the military tyranny ( Young and Young ) . The Ashikaga ( Muromachi ) Shogunate Ashikaga Takauiji established the Muromachi autocracy in 1336. Relative mavericks to Kyoto. the Ashikaga warriors essentially changed the force balance in the city by set uping their focal office at that place. In contrast to the Kamakura tyranny. which had kept up simply a constrained nearness in Kyoto. for a clasp the Muromachi autocracy made Kyoto the truly base of the warriors. who were essentially a common marvel. Regardless of their military capablenesss. in any case. they were non ready to hold their way in Kyoto completely. In the medieval equalization of different elites. both the respectability and the profound constitution kept on being powers to hypothesize with. All things considered. the warrior sway on Kyoto was instantly clear. The Ashikaga and their heroes were non essentially the most recent swayers to get in the city. The of import practical distinction among them and different elites was situated in parcel on their military limit: city removal. counting mediation and the authorization of law and request. much of the time included the utilization of power. or possibly the danger of power. Their utilization of bing warrior legitimate shows to a more extensive cultural range was other than a significant factor in their capacity to administrate the city. At long last the Muromachi fascism came to pass judgment on contrasts non influencing warriors: two blue bloods. for representation. or on the other hand a nobility and a sanctuary may go to the fascism as the solitary element whose approval conveyed satisfactory load to have up ones psyche an effect. By the mid fifteenth century the tyranny. like the royal court in early occasions. was perceived as the city’s chief ( Gay ) . The Muromachi autocracy was the most fragile of the three tyrannies †Kamakura. Muromachi. furthermore, Tokugawa †of pre-present day Japan ( Kanno ) . Indeed, even at its extremum under the third Ashikaga shogun. Yoshimitsu. at the terminal of the fourteenth century and the start of the fifteenth century. the shogunate’s enforceable approval expanded simply mostly past the cardinal and western conditions of Honshu and the island of Shikoku. The Kanto was neer ardently under cardinal Ashikaga control. furthermore, in the mid fifteenth century this of import part passed into divergence ( Embree and Gluck ) . The continuous melting away of the brought together intensity of the Ashikaga autocracy went to a terminal in Kyoto with the Onin common war ( 1467-77 ) brought about by the opposition between two baronial families firmly identified with the place of Ashikaga. The autocracy was decreased to such an extent that it could non order the opponent plots or hinder the war. which dispersed the number of inhabitants in Kyoto and caused the destruction of incalculable old fashioned dedications. With the terminal of the Onin war in 1477 started Japan’s ‘Hundred Years’ War’ in which fighting among the daimyo was endemic. It was a time of primitive framework with no cardinal approval. Indeed, even the old magnificent framework which had kept up some managerial legitimate control over peripheral parts became outdated ( Fletcher and Cruickshank ) . Plants Cited: Embree. Ainslie Thomas. what's more, Carol Gluck.Asia in Western and World History: A Guide for Teaching. Armonk. New York: M. E. Sharpe. 1997. Fletcher. Balustrade. furthermore, Dan Cruickshank.Sir Banister Fletcher’s a History of Architecture. 20 erectile brokenness. Jordan Hill. Oxford: Architectural Press. 1996. Gay. Suzanne Marie.The Moneylenders of Late Medieval Kyoto. Honolulu. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press. 2001. Lobby. John Whitney.The Cambridge History of Japan. Vol. 3. Cambridge. Joined realm: Cambridge University Press. 1999. Kanno. Eiji.New Japan Solo. fourth erectile brokenness. New York: Kodansha International. 1998. Varley. H. Paul.Nipponese Culture. Honolulu. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press. 2000. Youthful. David. what's more, Michiko Young.Introduction to Nipponese Architecture. Osaki. Shinagawa-ku. Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing. 2004.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Emily Dickinson Essay

American artist, Emily Dickinson, is an extraordinary case of the progress from the longwinded Romantic style of keeping in touch with scholarly introspective philosophy. Dickinson’s curved style and reduced expressions are intensely exemplified in her sonnet 1577(1545), â€Å"The Bible is an old fashioned Volume. † This piece is brimming with parody as the speaker questions society’s daze acquiescence to Christianity and at last proposes the grasping of another religion. The speaker nimbly corrupts the Bible’s directly as the single way to decipher mankind and recommends that the crowd discovers something new to accept. In the principal line, the allegory alluding the Bible as just â€Å"an antique volume† says a lot. Word reference. com characterizes volume in this setting as, â€Å"a assortment of composed or printed sheets bound together and comprising a book. † The speaker sees the Bible as a â€Å"antique† anthological assortment of stories that can be estimated instead of the abbreviation â€Basic Instructions Before Leaving Earth. In the second and third lines, the legitimacy of the creators of the Bible is addressed. Blurred Men† and â€Å"at the proposal of Holy Spectres† suggests the men where determined what to compose and didn’t experience that life themselves. These lines, and the whole sonnet, are generally deprived of the intricate language structure collective in Dickinson’s different sonnets. Those acquainted with scriptural people comprehend the noteworthiness of Satan, Judas, and David and the effect of their jobs in the Christian confidence. As a Christian peruser, the straightforwardness of the lines, â€Å"Satanâ€the Brigadier, Judasâ€the Great Defaulter, Davidâ€the Troubadour†, lessens the persons’ history. Despite the fact that the portrayals signify some reality, there is a whole other world to them than that. Satan, the â€Å"prince of the air (Ephesians 2:2)†, is answerable for enticing Eve into eating the illegal organic product consequently prompting man’s â€Å"distinguished incline. † David wasn’t only a psalmist, he was one of Israel’s most prominent lords and he is a piece of Jesus’ genealogy. Dickinson’s scholarly virtuoso anticipates what's going on in the twenty-first century. Today, being a Christian isn’t well known and life is more diligently for adolescents and youthful grown-ups. This is shown impeccably in â€Å"Boys that â€Å"believe† are very lonesome†. Adherents can’t do what nonbelievers are managing without being sentenced (1 Peter 1:14-As dutiful kids, don't adjust to the detestable wants you had when you lived in obliviousness). The nonbelievers are â€Å"lost† and don’t know any better. Customary places of worship push the â€Å"lost† more distant away as a result of the false reverence and mediation of famous strict pioneers. The holier-than â€thou pioneers are the most noticeably terrible wrongdoers since they are doing what they show will â€Å"condemn† you. Therefore, â€Å"Orpheus’ Sermon captivated† and Christianity is evaded. The two agnostics and Christians can value the subject of this sonnet everybody needs to have faith in something. Jews 11:1 characterizes confidence best as â€Å"the substance of things sought after and the proof of things not seen. † Unless an individual has an individual relationship with God, they won’t truly comprehend the importance of confidence the substance of Christianity. The speaker urges perusers to not depend exclusively on what they are advised yet to challenge it and learn for their self.

Sunday, May 31, 2020

Narrative Over Plot in Top Girls and Life of Galileo - Literature Essay Samples

German playwright Bertolt Brecht developed his theory of epic theatre as a response to the renaissance of Aristotelian tragic theatre in the latter part of the 1920s (Hecht, 40). Where Aristotle allowed the audience of his theatre the purgation of their emotions through dramatic scenes arousing catharsis, Brecht dared his audience not to weep or fume, but to become bothered by the offending subject: utterly, lastingly, and to the point of action. The focus of Brechtian theatre then became not the play’s story or plot, with its many Romantic devices of poetics and intense feeling, but the much more purposeful and straightforward narrative (â€Å"Brecht on Theatre†, 37). The preference of narrative over plot manifests itself in the work of a wide range of plays spanning the decades between epic theatre’s inception and the present day. This is clearly demonstrated in Brecht’s own 1943 play Life of Galileo, as well as British playwright Caryl Churchill’ s 1982 play Top Girls. Though the two pieces were written nearly forty years apart, their emphasis on narrative over plot has remained largely the same. Bertolt Brecht’s Life of Galileo is exactly what it proclaims itself to be: the life of Galileo. It reads like a biography, with language that often takes on a purely pragmatic and academic tone. The events of the play follow Galileo’s development of his telescope and subsequent discovery of the heliocentric nature of the universe through to his death. Through Galileo’s trials and tribulations, the play produces an image of the troublesome subjectivity of truth, and begs its audience to understand that the relationship between truth and progress is a line that slopes upward. This narrative is present and active first and foremost in the dialogue between characters. Scenes in Galileo often do not move the story forward so much as they are majorly composed of long debates or lessons concerning the nature of truth, usually with regard to the struggle between science and religion or, similarly, progress and tradition. For example, in Scene Four, Galileo has just move d to Florence and is in the company of the Grand Duke Cosimo de Medici and his scientists. The Philosopher says, when prompted to look into Galileo’s telescope, â€Å"The universe of the divine Aristotle, with the mystical music of its spheres and its crystalline vaults†¦ add up to an edifice of such exquisite proportions that we should think twice before disrupting its harmony.† (39). Here, The Philosopher is resisting what he knows in some capacity to be true in order to preserve what he first knew as true, because he is comforted by the stagnation of the truth which is valid in that an existence wherein one must always question what is and is not real is a maddening one, but invalid as a refusal of clear scientific evidence. The Philosopher and the Mathematician go on to say that there must be something wrong with Galileo’s telescope, if his findings contradict the great Aristotle’s (40). While this discussion is informative to Galileo’s struggle against the potency of tradition, it does not contribute to the plot: at the end of the scene, the Grand Duke is too tired to comment and leaves, while his scientists have still not looked through the telescope. Outside of the actual content of the scenes in the play, the stage design also reflects the Brechtian priority of narrative over plot. In productions of Life of Galileo, the title of each scene are projected on the stage to be read by the audience. An example is the title of Scene 3: â€Å"10 January 1610: Using the telescope, Galileo discovers celestial phenomena that confirm the Copernican system. Warned by his friend of the possible consequences of his research, Galileo proclaims his belief in human reason† (22). Here, everything that is going to happen in the following scene is communicated to the audience, which relieves them of the pressure of following the plot and makes the plot essentially irrelevant to the scene about to unfold. The audience’s attention must then be directed to the philosophy of the argument between Galileo and Sagredo, in which Sagrado begs that Galileo keep quiet, as he would misplace God and therefore disturb all of humanity if he were to s hare what was verifiably true (28). This use of the stage as a separate storytelling entity is typical of epic theatre, as is described in â€Å"Brecht on Theatre†. Whereas before epic theatre, â€Å"The environment†¦ was defined by the hero’s reactions to it,† now the stage was a character of its own, with an attitude and mechanized methods of participation (70, 71). Finally, an emphasis on narrative is demonstrated in the development or lack thereof in Galileo’s characters. Whereas the laws of naturalistic theatre say that dramatic characters are multi-faceted products of their heredity and environment (laws which Aristotelian tragic theatre arguably adopts), the characters in Galileo are minimalistic, only defined by their stance on the narrative issue; we as the audience do not have any insight into their past or their motivations. We only know what they believe in. Galileo is a man who believes in scientific proof, human reason, and the promot ion of truth despite its inconvenience. That is all the information that is necessary for the story to unfold. Caryl Churchill’s Top Girls starts immediately after the defining action of the play, in which protagonist Marlene gets a promotion. In this way, the play is aggressively Brechtian from the beginning. The infamous opening scene features women from several different time periods and levels of existence, all well known for having faced adversity in their womanhood and their ambition as women. This scene feels like a separate play within itself, as it in no way contributes to the rest of the story; the characters are not recurring and the discussion is not brought up again. It is only concept. The figures from history converse about the ills of their lives at the hands of pathetic men: Griselda’s husband does not value himself enough to trust that Griselda will be faithful to him and thereby feels as though he must test and torture her, the women in the Emperors palace are beaten by the Emperor with sticks so that they will not have daughters, and the Cardinals are so baff led by the notion of a woman being as close to God as a man that Pope Joan is stoned to death when her womanhood is revealed through her pregnancy. The commentary quickly becomes concerned with the toxicity of the patriarchy, as whenever success is to be had, the women have to assume the undesirable traits of male oppressors in order to be taken seriously, risking personal and emotional vacancy. For example, Lady Nijo tells: â€Å" when His Majesty came in Genki seized him and I beat him till he cried out and promised he would never order anyone to hit us again† (38). In order to correct the wrongs that were done to her, Lady Nijo recognizes that she must become violent, since communicating verbally, rationally, will not be effective with The Emperor. The narrative is echoed amongst the six at the dinner table, and the party ends abruptly with Joan praying as others are sick or worried sick. Many of the characters in this play are only introduced for the purpose of fulfilling the narrative even outside of the dinner party scene. In Act 2, Scene 1, Marlene and the audience are introduced to Mrs. Kidd, the wife of the man whose job Marlene has just been promoted to. She attempts on behalf of her husband to manipulate Marlene into simply handing him his old job back after seeing that he cannot handle being replaced by a woman: she says, â€Å" he’s got a family to support. He’s got three children. It’s only fair† (69). After demonstrating her husband’s pathetically entitled nature, she is dominated in conversation by Marlene and, much like the ladies at the dinner party, is never heard from again. Concerning the structure of the dialogue, there are innumerable moments where characters are speaking over one another, creating a cacophony that confuses and disengages the audience from what it being said. Often times, the overlapping of dialo gue occurs when the content of the dialogue has to do with the plot as opposed to the narrative. In Act 2, Scene 2, Joyce and Marlene argue about their pregnancies. Joyce says: â€Å" if It’d sat down all day with my feet up I’d’ve kept it / and that’s the only chance I ever had because after that -†, while in between ‘it’ and ‘and’, Marlene cuts her off, starting, â€Å"I’ve had two abortions, are you interested?† (92). However, when the same two characters are speaking moments later about Joyce’s despicable ex-husband, they do not overlap one another at all; each line is clear and complete. Although the form of Brechtian theatre has remained largely the same in the forty years between when Life of Galileo and Top Girls were written, its characteristics (specifically the emphasis of narrative over plot) have evolved in a few ways, as clearly demonstrated by the two plays when held in juxtaposition. For example, the narrative of the play has become more specific over time. While Galileo dealt with the importance of accepting truth in an evolving world, an abstract and broad struggle, Top Girls is focused on the damaging emotional effects of the patriarchy, a specific social issue. As far as plot goes, Brecht’s Galileo ironically seems to be more plot-heavy than Top Girls, perhaps because Churchill learned from Brecht that she could get away with telling a story with no plot. Life of Galileo, while not based in action by any means, does follow a journey: Galileo must find a way to get the truth out there. One scene goes logically into another following the timeline of Galileo’s life. However, in Top Girls, arguably the only plot point that is not explained in exposition is Angie’s schemes to spend time with her ‘Auntie’ Marlene. For the first act, each scene in this play is a completely different set of characters and does not have anything to do with the next; in this way, Top Girls is more ascribable to the thoughts of epic writer Doblin, who said that â€Å"with an epic work, as opposed to a dramatic, one can as it were take a pair of scissors and cut it into individual pieces, which remain fully capable of life† (â€Å"Brecht on Theatre†, 70). Finally, the narrative purpose is discussed much more blatantly in Life of Galileo than in Top Girls. In Galileo, characters often have conversations about exactly what the narrative is concerned with, as in the aforementioned conversation between Galileo and the Philosopher in Scene 4. The play is littered with the word ‘truth’. Contrastingly, wh en Churchill writes Top Girls, she does not write the word â€Å"patriarchy† once, instead choosing to have a more subtle discussion, in which the women in the play do not address and may not even be aware of the central issue. This is somewhat regressive from Brecht’s point of view, as he praises the â€Å"bold fundamental thesis† of the plays of Georg Kaiser (qtd. in Hecht, 64), whose work he lauds as the immediate precursor to epic theatre. He said in a radio interview that, â€Å" before Kaiser, plays depended essentially on suggestion, whereas Kaiser appeals to the reasoning power of the public† (Hecht, 65). However, while the aspect of narrative in epic theatre has evolved somewhat in the decades between Brecht and Churchill, the effect remains the same: the consumer of the play becomes bothered by the underlying issue and is moved to action. In today’s society, the most important function of art is its ability to motivate change, and the narrative issues of Brecht’s Life of Galileo and Caryl Churchill’s Top Girls both hold significant relevance in the context of our current political climate. Where traditional dramatic theory offers (what is viewed as necessary) escapism, epic theatre knows that it must prevent escapism by any means necessary in order to continue stimulating progress. The priority of a story’s narrative over its plot is thereby the complete epitome of epic theatre: it has a purpose, a stance, an unrelenting agenda.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

What Is the Premack Principle Definition and Examples

The Premack principle is a theory of reinforcement that states that a less desired behavior can be reinforced by the opportunity to engage in a more desired behavior. The theory is named after its originator, psychologist David Premack. Key Takeaways: The Premack Principle The Premack principle states that a higher probability behavior will reinforce a less probable behavior.Created by psychologist David Premack, the principle has become a hallmark of applied behavior analysis and behavior modification.The Premack principle has received empirical support and is frequently applied in child rearing and dog training. It is also known as relativity theory of reinforcement or grandmas rule. Origins of the Premack Principle Before the Premack principle was introduced, operant conditioning held that reinforcement was contingent upon the association of a single behavior and a single consequence. For example, if a student does well on a test, the studying behavior that resulted in his success will be reinforced if the teacher compliments him. In 1965, psychologist David Premack expanded on this idea to show that one behavior could reinforce another. Premack was studying Cebus monkeys when he observed that behaviors that an individual naturally engages in at a higher frequency are more rewarding than those the individual engages in at a lower frequency. He suggested that the more rewarding, higher-frequency behaviors could reinforce the less rewarding, low-frequency behaviors. Supporting Research Since Premack first shared his ideas, multiple studies with both people and animals have supported the principle that bears his name. One of the earliest studies was conducted by Premack himself. Premack first determined if his young child participants preferred playing pinball or eating candy. He then tested them in two scenarios: one in which the children had to play pinball in order to eat candy and the other in which they had to eat candy in order to play pinball. Premack found that in each scenario, only the children who preferred the second behavior in the sequence showed a reinforcement effect, evidence for the Premack principle. In a later study by Allen and Iwata demonstrated that exercising amongst a group of people with developmental disabilities increased when playing games (a high-frequency behavior) was made contingent on exercising (a low-frequency behavior). In another study, Welsh, Bernstein, and Luthans found that when fast food workers were promised more time working at their favorite stations if their performance met specific standards, the quality of their performance at other workstations improved.   Brenda Geiger found that providing seventh and eighth grade students with time to play on the playground could reinforce learning by making play contingent on the completion of their work in the classroom. In addition to increasing learning, this simple reinforcer increased students’ self-discipline and the time they spent on each task, and reduced the need for teachers to discipline students Examples The Premack principle can successfully be applied in many settings and has become a hallmark of applied behavior analysis and behavior modification. Two areas in which the application of the Premack principle has proven especially useful is child rearing and dog training. For example, when teaching a dog how to play fetch, the dog must learn that if he wants to chase the ball again (highly desired behavior), he must bring the ball back to his owner and drop it (less desired behavior). The Premack principle is used all the time with children. Many parents have told children they must eat their vegetables before they can have dessert or they have to finish their homework before they’re allowed to play a video game. This tendency of caregivers to use the principle is why it is sometimes called â€Å"grandma’s rule.† While it can be very effective with children of all ages, it’s important to note that not all children are equally motivated by the same rewards. Therefore, in order to successfully apply the Premack principle, caregivers must determine the behaviors that are most highly motivating to the child. Limitations of the Premacks Principle There are several limitations to the Premack principle. First, one’s response to an application of the principle is dependent on context. The other activities available to the individual at a given moment and the individual’s preferences will play a role in whether the chosen reinforcer will produce the less-probable behavior. Second, a high-frequency behavior will often occur at a lower rate when it’s contingent on a low-frequency behavior than when it’s not contingent on anything. This could be the result of there being too great a difference between the probability of performing the high and low frequency behaviors. For example, if one hour of study time only earns one hour of video game play and studying is an extremely low-frequency behavior while video game playing is an extremely high-frequency behavior, the individual may decide against studying to earn video game time because the large amount of study time is too onerous. Sources Barton, Erin E. Premack Principle. Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders, edited by Fred R. Volkmar, Springer, 2013, p. 95., Brenda. A Time to Learn, A Time to Play: Premacks Principle Applied in the Classroom. American Secondary Education, 1996., Stephanie. Understanding the Premack Principle in Dog Training. American Kennel Club, 5 July, 2018., Mary Lea. Premack Principle. Encyclopedia of School Psychology, edited by Steven W. Lee, Sage, 2005., Elizabeth G. E. Premack Principle. Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development, edited by Sam Goldstein and Jack A. Naglieri, Springer, 2011, pp. 1147-1148. Premacks Principle., David. T owards Empirical Behavior Laws: I. Positive Reinforcement. Psychological Review, vol. 66, no. 4, 1959, pp. 219-233., Dianne H.B., Daniel J. Bernstein, and Fred Luthans. Application of the Premack Principle of Reinforcement to the Quality Performance Service Employees. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, vol. 13, no. 1, 1993, pp. 9-32.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Human Trafficking Modern Day Slave Exchange Essay

Human trafficking is viewed as modern day slave exchange. It is a genuine crime under both global and national legal systems. It opens casualties to economic exploitation with a significant number of them being women and children less than 18 years old years. It is essential to know the way that human trafficking has raised critical human rights issues, particularly concerning women and children as stakeholders are beginning to reexamine their way to deal with this societal issue. Human trafficking has emerged as the third greatest criminal industry by drug trafficking and illicit arms. The human trafficking industry has helped in the expansion of different crimes, such as child abuse, prostitution and violence against women. With the assistance of existing research, this paper seeks to explain the different measurements of human trafficking and how it has influenced the general public at the individual, national and global level. The paper offers a few proposals with regards to the most ideal route concerning managing the issue of the current slave trade. Background Information on Human Trafficking The 13th amendment of United States constitution prohibited slavery. By 1981 different nations had taken action accordingly and exiled slavery. While the legal type of slavery was abrogated, the unlawful sort of slavery was left to flourish. Unlawful bondage, alluded to as human trafficking originated before the US for centuries in places such as Egypt and ancient Rome has beenShow MoreRelatedSlavery : A African American Slave1518 Words   |  7 PagesDave the potter was an African American slave that went through many hardships during his life just like any other slave. We look at slavery as a whole picture most of the time and don’t give very much thought to the political, economic, and racial factors that influence slavery, even in modern time. 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This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal.Sex trafficking is a very dangerous thing to be going on in this world.   Human trafficking can occur within a country or trans-nationally. The Metro-AtlantaRead MoreHuman Trafficking and Exploitation973 Words   |  4 Pagesroughly twenty-seven million people enslaved globally, over a million of which are sex slaves. Millions more have escaped, or died from assault or sexually transmitted diseases over the past twenty years. If serious action is not taken immediately, millions more will become victims. Human sex trafficking is a form of slavery and involuntary servitude which results in major human rights contraventions. Sex trafficking contains individuals profiting from the sexual extortion of others and has severe physicalRead MoreThe Problem Of Sex Trafficking1684 Words   |  7 PagesSolution to Human Trafficking is Just As Difficult As the Problem Sex Trafficking is a global phenomenon defined most often as the trade in women and children using force, fraud or coercion to cause a commercial sex act. Prostitution, pornography and sexual performance that is committed in exchange for money, drugs, shelter, food or clothes is defined as a commercial sex act. Sex Trafficking has a firm grip as a multi-million dollar production, recently skyrocketing with the modern era of technologyRead More Human Trafficking Essay examples1632 Words   |  7 PagesSlavery is a form of human bondage, in which people were forced to follow the demands of whoever owns them. Although it was abolished in the 19th century, slavery has been resurrected and has taken the form of human trafficking, a form of modern-day slavery, in which thousands of foreign people are smuggled across national borders as forced labor in factories, farms, and brothels. The way human traffickers persuade foreign women into coming to their country is forcing them against their will or falsely

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Strategy for Building a Global Brand @Lenovo

Question: Describe about the Strategy Synthesis,Lenovo for Building a Global Brand? Answer: Introduction An analysis of the case study on Lenovo making a global brand has indicated different major findings. The case analysis indicates that Lenovo has acquired IBM in order to go global and establish itself as a global brand. Initially, Lenovo was known as Legend and it has concentrated its focus only on the Chinese industry. However, with the intense level of competition, Lenovo felt the need of going global, and as a part of its strategy, it has performed the acquisition of IBM. There are different important facts related to such acquisition deal by Lenovo has been presented in the given case, and it has also been analysed that there has been the presentation of different strategies as applied by Lenovo in becoming a reputed global brand (Kapferer Jean-Noel, 2008). This case analysis focuses on different such important elements related to the Lenovos decision of going global, and success or failure of Lenovo prior to the acquisition and after the acquisition are considered. In addition to this, the case analysis also focuses towards analysing the advantages and disadvantages of strategies that have been considered by Lenovo in globalising its brand. Finally, there will be the strategic analysis of the given Lenovo case that will be performed through the application of strategic analytical tool such as SWOT, PESTEL, BCG matrix and Porter five forces. Based on the findings from the entire case study, it will be summarised in the conclusion section. IBM Selling its PC Business An analysis of the case study has reflected that Lenovo has acquired the PC business of IBM. However, in entering into such deal, there has been certain specific intent that has been noted with regard to IBM. The main factor that drives IBM in selling its PC business as identified from the case is mainly the change in the focus of the company. IBM has been known as the most reputed seller of PCs but it has changed its focus from being the seller of PCs to providing IT consulting services to its customers. The case analysis has resulted into the identification that IBM has realised about the declining potential of PC industry and the level of competition has also been rising. As a result, the PC selling business looks quite unattractive and the focus of IBM has mostly been towards providing IT consulting services. In addition to this, the case analysis also indicates that IBM has considered this deal within Lenovo as an opportunity because it would allow it in dropping down its unprof itable operations and thereby in concentrating on consulting services such as outsourcing of enterprise IT operations (Quelch Knoop, 2006). The company focused on long term growth strategy and it realised that by concentrating on selling PCs, it wont be able to achieve or maintain its growth position in the industry. It has therefore diversified its strategic focus by paying attention towards IT consulting services and selling off its PC business to Lenovo (Sharp, 2010). An analysis of the case has indicated that IBM has sold its business to Lenovo, and the assessment of the case has resulted into the identification that the most significant reason that becomes the primary contributing factor to IBM in selling its business to Lenovo is mainly the agreement by Lenovo on the terms as presented by IBM. As for instance, even after the acquisition, IBM owned 8.9% in the new acquired firm, and it has also been agreed by Lenovo that after the acquisition, Lenovo would not interfere in the consulting services that would be provided by IBM. There would not be any competitive conditions that would be introduced by Lenovo as agreed prior to the deal. These agreements by Lenovo on the terms and conditions of IBM have made it the most prospective customer and IBM ultimately sold its PC business to Lenovo. This has been the primary reason that has contributed towards the IBM business being sold to Lenovo as indicated in the case analysis (Whittington, 2001). Application of BCG Matrix: This particular decision of IBM selling its PC business to Lenovo can be better assessed through the application of BCG matrix. This matrix indicates the relative position of the company in relation to market performance, and it thereby explains the strategy that needs to be considered by businesses. There are four important positions such as cash cows, dogs, star and question mark. These particular attributes of BCG matrix explains different important indication of an organisations performance in relative to industry performance. An analysis of the given case of Lenovo indicates that the PC industry performance was declining and there was little scope available in the PC selling business. This led to IBM considered the strategy of targeting IT consulting services. This particular strategy of IBM can be best correlated with that of cash cows whereby the declining market performance has resulted into important decisions being undertaken by IBM in the form of leaving the PC segment and providing IT consulting services (Pettigrew, Thomas Whittington, 2002). Explaining Lenovos Success Prior to the Acquisition The case analysis has also indicated about the history of Lenovo whereby it has been assessed that Lenovo initially was known as Legend and it has established itself as a major seller of PC products across Chinese markets. Lenovo has organised itself as the most prominent brand in China with its core emphasis on innovation, quality and efficiency in its products and services offerings. The ability to innovate and offer something new has been the core feature that brought higher level of success and growth to Lenovo prior to acquisition. This has been identified from the case analysis whereby it has been evaluated that Lenovo has been the first company that has introduced Chinese-character card and it has contributed significantly towards the growth of the organisation.The card as introduced by the company is aimed at translating the English language into Chinese and this has been a significant contributor to the growth and recognition of Lenovo in the Chinese markets (Quelch Knoop, 2006). The local level focus of Lenovo in the Chinese markets and catering to the needs and expectations of its customers has been the primary contributing factor that has ensured success to the firm. In addition to this, the continuous and rapid level of innovation as introduced by Lenovo has also been the primary factor that has contributed towards higher organisational success. Further, prior to acquisition, the focus was highly localised and the company has concentrated all its resources in targeting Chinese markets. This has allowed Lenovo in achieving breakthrough improvements in its performance. All these factors have become the primary contributory factor to the growth and success of Lenovo prior to acquisition of IBM. The innovation along with ability of Lenovo in catering to the specific needs and requirements of its customers in China has driven company to higher level of growth and development (Quelch Knoop, 2006). Application of SWOT Analysis: This Lenovos success prior to the acquisition can be better evaluated through SWOT analysis. The strength point of Lenovo as identified from the case is its ability in designing cards that can convert English language into Chinese whereas the weakness of Lenovo is that it has created its brand image only across the Chinese markets. In terms of threats are concerned, the major threat to Lenovo is mainly from the stiff level of competition that was growing significantly across the Chinese markets as posed by international players such as dell, HP etc. The opportunities to Lenovo as identified from the case are the potential for exploring the international markets through its sound ability of innovation and excellence in respect to its offerings to its customers (Keller, Aperia Georgson, 2012). Challenges to Lenovo after Acquisition Before the acquisition of IBM, Lenovo has been operating a very small level, as the company has performed its operations only in the Chinese markets. However, the acquisition of IBM has necessitated Lenovo to make significant changes across its business models so that it can target its customers worldwide. It has been evaluated from the analysis that the main challenge immediately after the acquisition of IBM by Lenovo is that the company has to perform the marketing and management of its business at the global level. It needs to devise strategies that are aimed at targeting its customers in the world market. The second major challenge that has been evident in respect to Lenovo after the acquisition is that the company has to make adequate level of differences between the IBM products and Lenovo products. This is mainly because it needs to maintain two different brands separately and have to position their uniqueness in order to promote both of them in the global market (Fill, 2009). This is mainly because Lenovo cannot afford to lose its master brand at the same of promoting or maintaining IBM brands of product and it needs to manage both these brands. This has been a major challenge to the company, and the challenge also gets complex because the core principle of innovation and efficiency are integrated across the business principles of both IBM and Lenovo. These aspects have presented challenges to the company in maintaining both these brands after the acquisition. The challenges to Lenovo are not over, but the case analysis has indicated that the brand is faced with significant other challenges after the acquisition. As for instance, it has been assessed that Lenovo is mainly from Chinese oriented culture whereas IBM is a global organisation. The integration of culture across both these organisations has been a major challenge that was evident in respect to Lenovo. The cultural clash within employees is quite evident after the acquisition that has been carrie d out. This is mainly because IBM management operates as per US timetable which differs significantly from Chinese timetable (DallOlmo Riley, 2010). These are the major challenges that have been directly evident in respect to the performance of Lenovo after the acquisition of IBM has been taken place. The managerial challenges in the form of cultural differences across the two businesses and the need for maintaining separate business profile for both Lenovo and IBM has been the utmost difficult challenge to the Lenovos management after the acquisition. Advantages and Disadvantages to Lenovo for Different Branding Strategies An analysis of the case study has indicated that there are different branding strategies that have been considered by Lenovo as a part of its promotion at the global level. The company has little overall awareness across the international markets, and in order to raise its awareness level, the company has considered for different range of branding strategies. An analysis of the advantages as well as disadvantages of these strategies as considered are indicated as follows: Using Master Brand Strategy- This branding strategy implies that it requires businesses to focus specifically only their master brand while performing its promotion. The master branding strategy has the advantage in terms of better promotion of the master brand of the company. This is mainly because such master branding allows companies in focusing all its resources on a single brand. Contrary to this, the disadvantage associated with this master brand strategy is that it leaves with lesser overall resources to the firm in paying attention towards enhancing its other sub-brands that are operational (De Wit Meyer, 2005). House of Brand Strategy: This is another important branding strategy which involves the usage of large number of brands by the company in promoting its performance. It requires contribution of resources towards each sub-brand by the firm. The advantage of this branding strategy is that it allows for sufficient level of contribution or attention of the management towards different sub-brands of the company, and none of them get missed. As a result, there would be the possibility of attaining improved level of performance in respect to all the sub-brands of the company. Apart from this, the disadvantage is that it detracts the attention of the management from focusing only their major brands and ultimately, their performance might suffer (Quelch Knoop, 2006). Synergy Approach: The synergy approach to branding indicates a branding strategy whereby a master brand is being promoted in conjunction with a hero i.e. sub-brand. As in the given case of Lenovo, the master brand is the Lenovo itself and the sub-brand is IBM. This strategy has the advantage in the sense that the positive image of the sub-brand assists efficiently in promoting master brand within its target customers. This has been the advantage in respect to Lenovo in the given case study whereby Lenovo has utilised IBM brand in order to promote itself. The advantage is that the company can make use of its sub-brand in promoting its master brand whereas the disadvantage is mainly that this strategy cannot be possible if the sub-brand of the company is not that reputed or have strong brand image in the market (Carter, Clegg Kornberger, 2008). Lexus/Toyota Strategy: This has been the fourth major strategy that has been indicated in the given case. This strategy indicates that different brands of the company would represent separate luxury and mass market offerings. This implies that different product would create their own brand image and they would be marketed separately. In this relation, the main advantage of this particular strategy is that each separate brand of the company creates its own image and the resulting impact is that they are self dependent. However, the disadvantage is that in this branding strategy, the management require significant level of efforts in building up its different brands and leading them to higher level of success (Quelch Knoop, 2006). These are the major advantages and disadvantages of different branding strategies that have been identified. They should be considered by organisations before building up their branding strategy in particular. Lenovo Handling Brand Management Challenges: An analysis of the case study has indicated that Lenovo has faced with brand management challenges in its operations, and it is therefore essential that there should be appropriate strategies that must be considered by them. The acquisition of IBM has posed challenges to Lenovo in terms of its efficient brand management. The company faced challenges especially in respect to managing its Lenovo brand and at the same time, maintaining the status quo of its IBM brand. The challenge as faced by Lenovo related to brand management should be addressed by way of considering the synergy approach to managing brand. This is mainly because the IBM brand is already well known international brand and by utilising the effectiveness of its IBM brand, company can consider for promoting its master brand i.e. Lenovo. This strategy would have allowed Lenovo in keeping both its brand separately and distinct image, and at the same time, they could be recognised as two different brands by their customers. This should be the strategy that should have been considered by Lenovo for the purpose of branding its image (Doyle, 2008). Agreement for Lenovos Chosen Strategy: An analysis of the case study has indicated about the Lenovos chosen strategy and it is assessed that Lenovo has considered a simple strategy for the purpose of promoting its brand. It has been identified that a simple strategy of one two punch is being considered by Lenovo whereby the company focused on building up its Lenovo brand and continue to strengthen its ThinkPad product brand. This brand strategy as considered by Lenovo has been extremely effective from the point of view of catering to the needs and expectations of the brand. This is mainly because IBM has its own distinctive image and at the same time, Lenovo has also built up its own unique identity in the Chinese market and is building up its image in the global market. This simple strategy of building both these brands individually has therefore been highly efficient to the company. In addition to this, Lenovo has emphasised towards combining innovation and efficiency element in it s brand and this has proved to be highly successful to the company in addressing the higher level of competition as faced by it. Overall, the branding strategy as considered by Lenovo has been highly effective (Johnson, Scholes Whittington, 2009). Analysis of Lenovos Strategy through Porter Five Forces: An analysis of the PC industry indicates that the bargaining power of buyer is higher because they have wide range of choices available to them in selecting a particular brand and this led to medium power of suppliers in the industry. The threats of substitute are also increasing with tablets and smartphones being introduced. However, the new entrant threat is lower because of huge investment and reputation required in achieving success in such industry and the competitive condition is extremely tough whereby global players such as Dell and HP are competing heavily. Within such market conditions, it is highly essential that the Lenovos strategy should be to include both the innovative factors and efficiency factor so that the increasing competitive conditions as prevalent across the international markets can be efficiently addressed (Hooley, Saunders Piercy, 2008). Lenovo Becoming a Global Brand On the basis of analysis of the case study, it is assessed that Lenovo has originally been a Chinese brand as it has started its operations from China. However, the company later realised that it needs to go global, and in pursuing such global strategy, there are certain problems that are evident in respect to Lenovo. These problems are mainly because of the fact that Lenovo is mainly a Chinese brand and it is often associated with features such as lower on quality. Further, the case analysis indicated that the company has never been able to compete on basis such as lower cost of products. This is mainly because by lowering simply on the prices of the product, it is likely that its products are associated with lower quality because Lenovo is a Chinese brand. Thus, this particular association of Lenovo as being the Chinese company has affected the company in an adverse way in becoming a global brand (Fifield, 2007). Overcoming Problems- Such problems of associating the company with China by its customers can be overcome through focusing especially on aspects such as quality. Even by way of adapting a cost efficient strategy, Lenovo could still become a major global brand, but it needs to focus on aspects such as innovation, higher quality etc so that it can create distinguished image within its customers. Conclusion This report involved the performance of a critical analysis of the Lenovo case study and the performance of analysis revealed significant level of findings. It has been evaluated that IBM has sold its PC business to Lenovo mainly because of declining performance of the PC selling business, and growing overall effectiveness in respect to the IT consulting services. Lenovo has been identified as the most efficient target customer by IBM because of the easy agreement to all the conditions of IBM by it. The analysis has also indicated about the factors that have explained the success of Lenovo prior to acquisition and it has been evaluated that the major factors that have attributed success to Lenovo are the ability of the company in providing cards that translates English language into Chinese and also the ability of Lenovo to innovate and provide highly efficient products and services to its customers. However, the case analysis has also indicated that there are various major challenge s that are evident in respect to Lenovos performance after the acquisition and these are identified in terms of cross cultural compatibilities between the management of both these companies, and also the issue of maintaining brand image of both these companies. The analysis has also indicated about the advantages and disadvantages of the branding strategies as considered by Lenovo and finally, it is assessed that Lenovo faced problems in becoming a global brand because it mainly comes from China. References Carter, C., Clegg, S. Kornberger, M. (2008), A Very Short, Fairly Interesting and Reasonably Cheap Book About Studying Strategy, SAGE Publications, London, England. De Wit, B. Meyer, M., (2005) Strategy Synthesis: Resolving Strategy Paradoxes to Create Competitive Advantage (Texts Readings), Thompson Learning, UK DallOlmo Riley, F. (2010). Editors Introduction: Brand Management (pp. xxiii xxxi). In: DallOlmo Riley, F. (ed.) Brand Management, London: Sage Doyle, P. (2008), Value-Based Marketing: Marketing Strategies for Corporate Growth Shareholder Value, 2nd edition, John Wiley Sons, Chichester, England. Fill, C. (2009) Marketing Communications: interactivity, communities and content. Fifth edition, Prentice Hall. Fifield, F. (2007), Marketing Strategy: The Difference between Marketing and Markets, Butterworth-Heinemann, Elservier, Harlow, England. Hooley G.J, Saunders J. Piercy N.F. (2008), Marketing Strategy Competitive Positioning, 4th edition, Harlow : Financial Times Prentice Hall Johnson, G., Scholes, K. Whittington, R. (2009). Fundamentals of Strategy. Essex: Pearson. Kapferer, Jean-Noel (2008) The new strategic brand management. London: Kogan Page Keller, K.L., Aperia, T., Georgson, M. (2012), Strategic Brand Management, A European Perspective, ISBN 978-0-273-70632-8 Publisher: Harlow, England: FT/ Prentice Hall Pettigrew, A., Thomas, H. Whittington, R. (2002), Handbook of Strategy Management, SAGE Publications, London, England Quelch, J,. Knoop, C. (2006) Lenovo: Building a Global Brand, Harvard Business School. Sharp, B. (2010). How brands grow. Victoria, Australia: Oxford University Press. Whittington, R., (2001), What is Strategy and Does it Matter? Routledge, London