Sunday, May 31, 2020
German playwright Bertolt Brecht developed his theory of epic theatre as a response to the renaissance of Aristotelian tragic theatre in the latter part of the 1920s (Hecht, 40). Where Aristotle allowed the audience of his theatre the purgation of their emotions through dramatic scenes arousing catharsis, Brecht dared his audience not to weep or fume, but to become bothered by the offending subject: utterly, lastingly, and to the point of action. The focus of Brechtian theatre then became not the playÃ¢â¬â¢s story or plot, with its many Romantic devices of poetics and intense feeling, but the much more purposeful and straightforward narrative (Ã¢â¬Å"Brecht on TheatreÃ¢â¬ , 37). The preference of narrative over plot manifests itself in the work of a wide range of plays spanning the decades between epic theatreÃ¢â¬â¢s inception and the present day. This is clearly demonstrated in BrechtÃ¢â¬â¢s own 1943 play Life of Galileo, as well as British playwright Caryl ChurchillÃ¢â¬â¢ s 1982 play Top Girls. Though the two pieces were written nearly forty years apart, their emphasis on narrative over plot has remained largely the same. Bertolt BrechtÃ¢â¬â¢s Life of Galileo is exactly what it proclaims itself to be: the life of Galileo. It reads like a biography, with language that often takes on a purely pragmatic and academic tone. The events of the play follow GalileoÃ¢â¬â¢s development of his telescope and subsequent discovery of the heliocentric nature of the universe through to his death. Through GalileoÃ¢â¬â¢s trials and tribulations, the play produces an image of the troublesome subjectivity of truth, and begs its audience to understand that the relationship between truth and progress is a line that slopes upward. This narrative is present and active first and foremost in the dialogue between characters. Scenes in Galileo often do not move the story forward so much as they are majorly composed of long debates or lessons concerning the nature of truth, usually with regard to the struggle between science and religion or, similarly, progress and tradition. For example, in Scene Four, Galileo has just move d to Florence and is in the company of the Grand Duke Cosimo de Medici and his scientists. The Philosopher says, when prompted to look into GalileoÃ¢â¬â¢s telescope, Ã¢â¬Å"The universe of the divine Aristotle, with the mystical music of its spheres and its crystalline vaultsÃ¢â¬ ¦ add up to an edifice of such exquisite proportions that we should think twice before disrupting its harmony.Ã¢â¬ (39). Here, The Philosopher is resisting what he knows in some capacity to be true in order to preserve what he first knew as true, because he is comforted by the stagnation of the truth which is valid in that an existence wherein one must always question what is and is not real is a maddening one, but invalid as a refusal of clear scientific evidence. The Philosopher and the Mathematician go on to say that there must be something wrong with GalileoÃ¢â¬â¢s telescope, if his findings contradict the great AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s (40). While this discussion is informative to GalileoÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle against the potency of tradition, it does not contribute to the plot: at the end of the scene, the Grand Duke is too tired to comment and leaves, while his scientists have still not looked through the telescope. Outside of the actual content of the scenes in the play, the stage design also reflects the Brechtian priority of narrative over plot. In productions of Life of Galileo, the title of each scene are projected on the stage to be read by the audience. An example is the title of Scene 3: Ã¢â¬Å"10 January 1610: Using the telescope, Galileo discovers celestial phenomena that confirm the Copernican system. Warned by his friend of the possible consequences of his research, Galileo proclaims his belief in human reasonÃ¢â¬ (22). Here, everything that is going to happen in the following scene is communicated to the audience, which relieves them of the pressure of following the plot and makes the plot essentially irrelevant to the scene about to unfold. The audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s attention must then be directed to the philosophy of the argument between Galileo and Sagredo, in which Sagrado begs that Galileo keep quiet, as he would misplace God and therefore disturb all of humanity if he were to s hare what was verifiably true (28). This use of the stage as a separate storytelling entity is typical of epic theatre, as is described in Ã¢â¬Å"Brecht on TheatreÃ¢â¬ . Whereas before epic theatre, Ã¢â¬Å"The environmentÃ¢â¬ ¦ was defined by the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s reactions to it,Ã¢â¬ now the stage was a character of its own, with an attitude and mechanized methods of participation (70, 71). Finally, an emphasis on narrative is demonstrated in the development or lack thereof in GalileoÃ¢â¬â¢s characters. Whereas the laws of naturalistic theatre say that dramatic characters are multi-faceted products of their heredity and environment (laws which Aristotelian tragic theatre arguably adopts), the characters in Galileo are minimalistic, only defined by their stance on the narrative issue; we as the audience do not have any insight into their past or their motivations. We only know what they believe in. Galileo is a man who believes in scientific proof, human reason, and the promot ion of truth despite its inconvenience. That is all the information that is necessary for the story to unfold. Caryl ChurchillÃ¢â¬â¢s Top Girls starts immediately after the defining action of the play, in which protagonist Marlene gets a promotion. In this way, the play is aggressively Brechtian from the beginning. The infamous opening scene features women from several different time periods and levels of existence, all well known for having faced adversity in their womanhood and their ambition as women. This scene feels like a separate play within itself, as it in no way contributes to the rest of the story; the characters are not recurring and the discussion is not brought up again. It is only concept. The figures from history converse about the ills of their lives at the hands of pathetic men: GriseldaÃ¢â¬â¢s husband does not value himself enough to trust that Griselda will be faithful to him and thereby feels as though he must test and torture her, the women in the Emperors palace are beaten by the Emperor with sticks so that they will not have daughters, and the Cardinals are so baff led by the notion of a woman being as close to God as a man that Pope Joan is stoned to death when her womanhood is revealed through her pregnancy. The commentary quickly becomes concerned with the toxicity of the patriarchy, as whenever success is to be had, the women have to assume the undesirable traits of male oppressors in order to be taken seriously, risking personal and emotional vacancy. For example, Lady Nijo tells: Ã¢â¬Å" when His Majesty came in Genki seized him and I beat him till he cried out and promised he would never order anyone to hit us againÃ¢â¬ (38). In order to correct the wrongs that were done to her, Lady Nijo recognizes that she must become violent, since communicating verbally, rationally, will not be effective with The Emperor. The narrative is echoed amongst the six at the dinner table, and the party ends abruptly with Joan praying as others are sick or worried sick. Many of the characters in this play are only introduced for the purpose of fulfilling the narrative even outside of the dinner party scene. In Act 2, Scene 1, Marlene and the audience are introduced to Mrs. Kidd, the wife of the man whose job Marlene has just been promoted to. She attempts on behalf of her husband to manipulate Marlene into simply handing him his old job back after seeing that he cannot handle being replaced by a woman: she says, Ã¢â¬Å" heÃ¢â¬â¢s got a family to support. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s got three children. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s only fairÃ¢â¬ (69). After demonstrating her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s pathetically entitled nature, she is dominated in conversation by Marlene and, much like the ladies at the dinner party, is never heard from again. Concerning the structure of the dialogue, there are innumerable moments where characters are speaking over one another, creating a cacophony that confuses and disengages the audience from what it being said. Often times, the overlapping of dialo gue occurs when the content of the dialogue has to do with the plot as opposed to the narrative. In Act 2, Scene 2, Joyce and Marlene argue about their pregnancies. Joyce says: Ã¢â¬Å" if ItÃ¢â¬â¢d sat down all day with my feet up IÃ¢â¬â¢dÃ¢â¬â¢ve kept it / and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the only chance I ever had because after that -Ã¢â¬ , while in between Ã¢â¬ËitÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËandÃ¢â¬â¢, Marlene cuts her off, starting, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve had two abortions, are you interested?Ã¢â¬ (92). However, when the same two characters are speaking moments later about JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s despicable ex-husband, they do not overlap one another at all; each line is clear and complete. Although the form of Brechtian theatre has remained largely the same in the forty years between when Life of Galileo and Top Girls were written, its characteristics (specifically the emphasis of narrative over plot) have evolved in a few ways, as clearly demonstrated by the two plays when held in juxtaposition. For example, the narrative of the play has become more specific over time. While Galileo dealt with the importance of accepting truth in an evolving world, an abstract and broad struggle, Top Girls is focused on the damaging emotional effects of the patriarchy, a specific social issue. As far as plot goes, BrechtÃ¢â¬â¢s Galileo ironically seems to be more plot-heavy than Top Girls, perhaps because Churchill learned from Brecht that she could get away with telling a story with no plot. Life of Galileo, while not based in action by any means, does follow a journey: Galileo must find a way to get the truth out there. One scene goes logically into another following the timeline of GalileoÃ¢â¬â¢s life. However, in Top Girls, arguably the only plot point that is not explained in exposition is AngieÃ¢â¬â¢s schemes to spend time with her Ã¢â¬ËAuntieÃ¢â¬â¢ Marlene. For the first act, each scene in this play is a completely different set of characters and does not have anything to do with the next; in this way, Top Girls is more ascribable to the thoughts of epic writer Doblin, who said that Ã¢â¬Å"with an epic work, as opposed to a dramatic, one can as it were take a pair of scissors and cut it into individual pieces, which remain fully capable of lifeÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Brecht on TheatreÃ¢â¬ , 70). Finally, the narrative purpose is discussed much more blatantly in Life of Galileo than in Top Girls. In Galileo, characters often have conversations about exactly what the narrative is concerned with, as in the aforementioned conversation between Galileo and the Philosopher in Scene 4. The play is littered with the word Ã¢â¬ËtruthÃ¢â¬â¢. Contrastingly, wh en Churchill writes Top Girls, she does not write the word Ã¢â¬Å"patriarchyÃ¢â¬ once, instead choosing to have a more subtle discussion, in which the women in the play do not address and may not even be aware of the central issue. This is somewhat regressive from BrechtÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, as he praises the Ã¢â¬Å"bold fundamental thesisÃ¢â¬ of the plays of Georg Kaiser (qtd. in Hecht, 64), whose work he lauds as the immediate precursor to epic theatre. He said in a radio interview that, Ã¢â¬Å" before Kaiser, plays depended essentially on suggestion, whereas Kaiser appeals to the reasoning power of the publicÃ¢â¬ (Hecht, 65). However, while the aspect of narrative in epic theatre has evolved somewhat in the decades between Brecht and Churchill, the effect remains the same: the consumer of the play becomes bothered by the underlying issue and is moved to action. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, the most important function of art is its ability to motivate change, and the narrative issues of BrechtÃ¢â¬â¢s Life of Galileo and Caryl ChurchillÃ¢â¬â¢s Top Girls both hold significant relevance in the context of our current political climate. Where traditional dramatic theory offers (what is viewed as necessary) escapism, epic theatre knows that it must prevent escapism by any means necessary in order to continue stimulating progress. The priority of a storyÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative over its plot is thereby the complete epitome of epic theatre: it has a purpose, a stance, an unrelenting agenda.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
The Premack principle is a theory of reinforcement that states that a less desired behavior can be reinforced by the opportunity to engage in a more desired behavior. The theory is named after its originator, psychologist David Premack. Key Takeaways: The Premack Principle The Premack principle states that a higher probability behavior will reinforce a less probable behavior.Created by psychologist David Premack, the principle has become a hallmark of applied behavior analysis and behavior modification.The Premack principle has received empirical support and is frequently applied in child rearing and dog training. It is also known as relativity theory of reinforcement or grandmas rule. Origins of the Premack Principle Before the Premack principle was introduced, operant conditioning held that reinforcement was contingent upon the association of a single behavior and a single consequence. For example, if a student does well on a test, the studying behavior that resulted in his success will be reinforced if the teacher compliments him. In 1965, psychologist David Premack expanded on this idea to show that one behavior could reinforce another. Premack was studying Cebus monkeys when he observed that behaviors that an individual naturally engages in at a higher frequency are more rewarding than those the individual engages in at a lower frequency. He suggested that the more rewarding, higher-frequency behaviors could reinforce the less rewarding, low-frequency behaviors. Supporting Research Since Premack first shared his ideas, multiple studies with both people and animals have supported the principle that bears his name. One of the earliest studies was conducted by Premack himself. Premack first determined if his young child participants preferred playing pinball or eating candy. He then tested them in two scenarios: one in which the children had to play pinball in order to eat candy and the other in which they had to eat candy in order to play pinball. Premack found that in each scenario, only the children who preferred the second behavior in the sequence showed a reinforcement effect, evidence for the Premack principle. In a later study by Allen and Iwata demonstrated that exercising amongst a group of people with developmental disabilities increased when playing games (a high-frequency behavior) was made contingent on exercising (a low-frequency behavior). In another study, Welsh, Bernstein, and Luthans found that when fast food workers were promised more time working at their favorite stations if their performance met specific standards, the quality of their performance at other workstations improved.Ã Brenda Geiger found that providing seventh and eighth grade students with time to play on the playground could reinforce learning by making play contingent on the completion of their work in the classroom. In addition to increasing learning, this simple reinforcer increased studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ self-discipline and the time they spent on each task, and reduced the need for teachers to discipline students Examples The Premack principle can successfully be applied in many settings and has become a hallmark of applied behavior analysis and behavior modification. Two areas in which the application of the Premack principle has proven especially useful is child rearing and dog training. For example, when teaching a dog how to play fetch, the dog must learn that if he wants to chase the ball again (highly desired behavior), he must bring the ball back to his owner and drop it (less desired behavior). The Premack principle is used all the time with children. Many parents have told children they must eat their vegetables before they can have dessert or they have to finish their homework before theyÃ¢â¬â¢re allowed to play a video game. This tendency of caregivers to use the principle is why it is sometimes called Ã¢â¬Å"grandmaÃ¢â¬â¢s rule.Ã¢â¬ While it can be very effective with children of all ages, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to note that not all children are equally motivated by the same rewards. Therefore, in order to successfully apply the Premack principle, caregivers must determine the behaviors that are most highly motivating to the child. Limitations of the Premacks Principle There are several limitations to the Premack principle. First, oneÃ¢â¬â¢s response to an application of the principle is dependent on context. The other activities available to the individual at a given moment and the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s preferences will play a role in whether the chosen reinforcer will produce the less-probable behavior. Second, a high-frequency behavior will often occur at a lower rate when itÃ¢â¬â¢s contingent on a low-frequency behavior than when itÃ¢â¬â¢s not contingent on anything. This could be the result of there being too great a difference between the probability of performing the high and low frequency behaviors. For example, if one hour of study time only earns one hour of video game play and studying is an extremely low-frequency behavior while video game playing is an extremely high-frequency behavior, the individual may decide against studying to earn video game time because the large amount of study time is too onerous. Sources Barton, Erin E. Premack Principle. Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders, edited by Fred R. Volkmar, Springer, 2013, p. 95. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1698-3Geiger, Brenda. A Time to Learn, A Time to Play: Premacks Principle Applied in the Classroom. American Secondary Education, 1996. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED405373.pdfGibeault, Stephanie. Understanding the Premack Principle in Dog Training. American Kennel Club, 5 July, 2018. https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/training/what-is-the-premack-principle-in-dog-training/Johanning, Mary Lea. Premack Principle. Encyclopedia of School Psychology, edited by Steven W. Lee, Sage, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412952491.n219Kyonka, Elizabeth G. E. Premack Principle. Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development, edited by Sam Goldstein and Jack A. Naglieri, Springer, 2011, pp. 1147-1148. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79061-9_2219Psynso. Premacks Principle. https://psynso.com/premacks-principle/Premack, David. T owards Empirical Behavior Laws: I. Positive Reinforcement. Psychological Review, vol. 66, no. 4, 1959, pp. 219-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040891Welsh, Dianne H.B., Daniel J. Bernstein, and Fred Luthans. Application of the Premack Principle of Reinforcement to the Quality Performance Service Employees. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, vol. 13, no. 1, 1993, pp. 9-32. https://doi.org/10.1300/J075v13n01_03
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Human trafficking is viewed as modern day slave exchange. It is a genuine crime under both global and national legal systems. It opens casualties to economic exploitation with a significant number of them being women and children less than 18 years old years. It is essential to know the way that human trafficking has raised critical human rights issues, particularly concerning women and children as stakeholders are beginning to reexamine their way to deal with this societal issue. Human trafficking has emerged as the third greatest criminal industry by drug trafficking and illicit arms. The human trafficking industry has helped in the expansion of different crimes, such as child abuse, prostitution and violence against women. With the assistance of existing research, this paper seeks to explain the different measurements of human trafficking and how it has influenced the general public at the individual, national and global level. The paper offers a few proposals with regards to the most ideal route concerning managing the issue of the current slave trade. Background Information on Human Trafficking The 13th amendment of United States constitution prohibited slavery. By 1981 different nations had taken action accordingly and exiled slavery. While the legal type of slavery was abrogated, the unlawful sort of slavery was left to flourish. Unlawful bondage, alluded to as human trafficking originated before the US for centuries in places such as Egypt and ancient Rome has beenShow MoreRelatedSlavery : A African American Slave1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDave the potter was an African American slave that went through many hardships during his life just like any other slave. We look at slavery as a whole picture most of the time and donÃ¢â¬â¢t give very much thought to the political, economic, and racial factors that influence slavery, even in modern time. 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Sex trafficking contains individuals profiting from the sexual extortion of others and has severe physicalRead MoreThe Problem Of Sex Trafficking1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSolution to Human Trafficking is Just As Difficult As the Problem Sex Trafficking is a global phenomenon defined most often as the trade in women and children using force, fraud or coercion to cause a commercial sex act. Prostitution, pornography and sexual performance that is committed in exchange for money, drugs, shelter, food or clothes is defined as a commercial sex act. Sex Trafficking has a firm grip as a multi-million dollar production, recently skyrocketing with the modern era of technologyRead More Human Trafficking Essay examples1632 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSlavery is a form of human bondage, in which people were forced to follow the demands of whoever owns them. Although it was abolished in the 19th century, slavery has been resurrected and has taken the form of human trafficking, a form of modern-day slavery, in which thousands of foreign people are smuggled across national borders as forced labor in factories, farms, and brothels. The way human traffickers persuade foreign women into coming to their country is forcing them against their will or falsely
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the Strategy Synthesis,Lenovo for Building a Global Brand? Answer: Introduction An analysis of the case study on Lenovo making a global brand has indicated different major findings. The case analysis indicates that Lenovo has acquired IBM in order to go global and establish itself as a global brand. Initially, Lenovo was known as Legend and it has concentrated its focus only on the Chinese industry. However, with the intense level of competition, Lenovo felt the need of going global, and as a part of its strategy, it has performed the acquisition of IBM. There are different important facts related to such acquisition deal by Lenovo has been presented in the given case, and it has also been analysed that there has been the presentation of different strategies as applied by Lenovo in becoming a reputed global brand (Kapferer Jean-Noel, 2008). This case analysis focuses on different such important elements related to the Lenovos decision of going global, and success or failure of Lenovo prior to the acquisition and after the acquisition are considered. In addition to this, the case analysis also focuses towards analysing the advantages and disadvantages of strategies that have been considered by Lenovo in globalising its brand. Finally, there will be the strategic analysis of the given Lenovo case that will be performed through the application of strategic analytical tool such as SWOT, PESTEL, BCG matrix and Porter five forces. Based on the findings from the entire case study, it will be summarised in the conclusion section. IBM Selling its PC Business An analysis of the case study has reflected that Lenovo has acquired the PC business of IBM. However, in entering into such deal, there has been certain specific intent that has been noted with regard to IBM. The main factor that drives IBM in selling its PC business as identified from the case is mainly the change in the focus of the company. IBM has been known as the most reputed seller of PCs but it has changed its focus from being the seller of PCs to providing IT consulting services to its customers. The case analysis has resulted into the identification that IBM has realised about the declining potential of PC industry and the level of competition has also been rising. As a result, the PC selling business looks quite unattractive and the focus of IBM has mostly been towards providing IT consulting services. In addition to this, the case analysis also indicates that IBM has considered this deal within Lenovo as an opportunity because it would allow it in dropping down its unprof itable operations and thereby in concentrating on consulting services such as outsourcing of enterprise IT operations (Quelch Knoop, 2006). The company focused on long term growth strategy and it realised that by concentrating on selling PCs, it wont be able to achieve or maintain its growth position in the industry. It has therefore diversified its strategic focus by paying attention towards IT consulting services and selling off its PC business to Lenovo (Sharp, 2010). An analysis of the case has indicated that IBM has sold its business to Lenovo, and the assessment of the case has resulted into the identification that the most significant reason that becomes the primary contributing factor to IBM in selling its business to Lenovo is mainly the agreement by Lenovo on the terms as presented by IBM. As for instance, even after the acquisition, IBM owned 8.9% in the new acquired firm, and it has also been agreed by Lenovo that after the acquisition, Lenovo would not interfere in the consulting services that would be provided by IBM. There would not be any competitive conditions that would be introduced by Lenovo as agreed prior to the deal. These agreements by Lenovo on the terms and conditions of IBM have made it the most prospective customer and IBM ultimately sold its PC business to Lenovo. This has been the primary reason that has contributed towards the IBM business being sold to Lenovo as indicated in the case analysis (Whittington, 2001). Application of BCG Matrix: This particular decision of IBM selling its PC business to Lenovo can be better assessed through the application of BCG matrix. This matrix indicates the relative position of the company in relation to market performance, and it thereby explains the strategy that needs to be considered by businesses. There are four important positions such as cash cows, dogs, star and question mark. These particular attributes of BCG matrix explains different important indication of an organisations performance in relative to industry performance. An analysis of the given case of Lenovo indicates that the PC industry performance was declining and there was little scope available in the PC selling business. This led to IBM considered the strategy of targeting IT consulting services. This particular strategy of IBM can be best correlated with that of cash cows whereby the declining market performance has resulted into important decisions being undertaken by IBM in the form of leaving the PC segment and providing IT consulting services (Pettigrew, Thomas Whittington, 2002). Explaining Lenovos Success Prior to the Acquisition The case analysis has also indicated about the history of Lenovo whereby it has been assessed that Lenovo initially was known as Legend and it has established itself as a major seller of PC products across Chinese markets. Lenovo has organised itself as the most prominent brand in China with its core emphasis on innovation, quality and efficiency in its products and services offerings. The ability to innovate and offer something new has been the core feature that brought higher level of success and growth to Lenovo prior to acquisition. This has been identified from the case analysis whereby it has been evaluated that Lenovo has been the first company that has introduced Chinese-character card and it has contributed significantly towards the growth of the organisation.The card as introduced by the company is aimed at translating the English language into Chinese and this has been a significant contributor to the growth and recognition of Lenovo in the Chinese markets (Quelch Knoop, 2006). The local level focus of Lenovo in the Chinese markets and catering to the needs and expectations of its customers has been the primary contributing factor that has ensured success to the firm. In addition to this, the continuous and rapid level of innovation as introduced by Lenovo has also been the primary factor that has contributed towards higher organisational success. Further, prior to acquisition, the focus was highly localised and the company has concentrated all its resources in targeting Chinese markets. This has allowed Lenovo in achieving breakthrough improvements in its performance. All these factors have become the primary contributory factor to the growth and success of Lenovo prior to acquisition of IBM. The innovation along with ability of Lenovo in catering to the specific needs and requirements of its customers in China has driven company to higher level of growth and development (Quelch Knoop, 2006). Application of SWOT Analysis: This Lenovos success prior to the acquisition can be better evaluated through SWOT analysis. The strength point of Lenovo as identified from the case is its ability in designing cards that can convert English language into Chinese whereas the weakness of Lenovo is that it has created its brand image only across the Chinese markets. In terms of threats are concerned, the major threat to Lenovo is mainly from the stiff level of competition that was growing significantly across the Chinese markets as posed by international players such as dell, HP etc. The opportunities to Lenovo as identified from the case are the potential for exploring the international markets through its sound ability of innovation and excellence in respect to its offerings to its customers (Keller, Aperia Georgson, 2012). Challenges to Lenovo after Acquisition Before the acquisition of IBM, Lenovo has been operating a very small level, as the company has performed its operations only in the Chinese markets. However, the acquisition of IBM has necessitated Lenovo to make significant changes across its business models so that it can target its customers worldwide. It has been evaluated from the analysis that the main challenge immediately after the acquisition of IBM by Lenovo is that the company has to perform the marketing and management of its business at the global level. It needs to devise strategies that are aimed at targeting its customers in the world market. The second major challenge that has been evident in respect to Lenovo after the acquisition is that the company has to make adequate level of differences between the IBM products and Lenovo products. This is mainly because it needs to maintain two different brands separately and have to position their uniqueness in order to promote both of them in the global market (Fill, 2009). This is mainly because Lenovo cannot afford to lose its master brand at the same of promoting or maintaining IBM brands of product and it needs to manage both these brands. This has been a major challenge to the company, and the challenge also gets complex because the core principle of innovation and efficiency are integrated across the business principles of both IBM and Lenovo. These aspects have presented challenges to the company in maintaining both these brands after the acquisition. The challenges to Lenovo are not over, but the case analysis has indicated that the brand is faced with significant other challenges after the acquisition. As for instance, it has been assessed that Lenovo is mainly from Chinese oriented culture whereas IBM is a global organisation. The integration of culture across both these organisations has been a major challenge that was evident in respect to Lenovo. The cultural clash within employees is quite evident after the acquisition that has been carrie d out. This is mainly because IBM management operates as per US timetable which differs significantly from Chinese timetable (DallOlmo Riley, 2010). These are the major challenges that have been directly evident in respect to the performance of Lenovo after the acquisition of IBM has been taken place. The managerial challenges in the form of cultural differences across the two businesses and the need for maintaining separate business profile for both Lenovo and IBM has been the utmost difficult challenge to the Lenovos management after the acquisition. Advantages and Disadvantages to Lenovo for Different Branding Strategies An analysis of the case study has indicated that there are different branding strategies that have been considered by Lenovo as a part of its promotion at the global level. The company has little overall awareness across the international markets, and in order to raise its awareness level, the company has considered for different range of branding strategies. An analysis of the advantages as well as disadvantages of these strategies as considered are indicated as follows: Using Master Brand Strategy- This branding strategy implies that it requires businesses to focus specifically only their master brand while performing its promotion. The master branding strategy has the advantage in terms of better promotion of the master brand of the company. This is mainly because such master branding allows companies in focusing all its resources on a single brand. Contrary to this, the disadvantage associated with this master brand strategy is that it leaves with lesser overall resources to the firm in paying attention towards enhancing its other sub-brands that are operational (De Wit Meyer, 2005). House of Brand Strategy: This is another important branding strategy which involves the usage of large number of brands by the company in promoting its performance. It requires contribution of resources towards each sub-brand by the firm. The advantage of this branding strategy is that it allows for sufficient level of contribution or attention of the management towards different sub-brands of the company, and none of them get missed. As a result, there would be the possibility of attaining improved level of performance in respect to all the sub-brands of the company. Apart from this, the disadvantage is that it detracts the attention of the management from focusing only their major brands and ultimately, their performance might suffer (Quelch Knoop, 2006). Synergy Approach: The synergy approach to branding indicates a branding strategy whereby a master brand is being promoted in conjunction with a hero i.e. sub-brand. As in the given case of Lenovo, the master brand is the Lenovo itself and the sub-brand is IBM. This strategy has the advantage in the sense that the positive image of the sub-brand assists efficiently in promoting master brand within its target customers. This has been the advantage in respect to Lenovo in the given case study whereby Lenovo has utilised IBM brand in order to promote itself. The advantage is that the company can make use of its sub-brand in promoting its master brand whereas the disadvantage is mainly that this strategy cannot be possible if the sub-brand of the company is not that reputed or have strong brand image in the market (Carter, Clegg Kornberger, 2008). Lexus/Toyota Strategy: This has been the fourth major strategy that has been indicated in the given case. This strategy indicates that different brands of the company would represent separate luxury and mass market offerings. This implies that different product would create their own brand image and they would be marketed separately. In this relation, the main advantage of this particular strategy is that each separate brand of the company creates its own image and the resulting impact is that they are self dependent. However, the disadvantage is that in this branding strategy, the management require significant level of efforts in building up its different brands and leading them to higher level of success (Quelch Knoop, 2006). These are the major advantages and disadvantages of different branding strategies that have been identified. They should be considered by organisations before building up their branding strategy in particular. Lenovo Handling Brand Management Challenges: An analysis of the case study has indicated that Lenovo has faced with brand management challenges in its operations, and it is therefore essential that there should be appropriate strategies that must be considered by them. The acquisition of IBM has posed challenges to Lenovo in terms of its efficient brand management. The company faced challenges especially in respect to managing its Lenovo brand and at the same time, maintaining the status quo of its IBM brand. The challenge as faced by Lenovo related to brand management should be addressed by way of considering the synergy approach to managing brand. This is mainly because the IBM brand is already well known international brand and by utilising the effectiveness of its IBM brand, company can consider for promoting its master brand i.e. Lenovo. This strategy would have allowed Lenovo in keeping both its brand separately and distinct image, and at the same time, they could be recognised as two different brands by their customers. This should be the strategy that should have been considered by Lenovo for the purpose of branding its image (Doyle, 2008). Agreement for Lenovos Chosen Strategy: An analysis of the case study has indicated about the Lenovos chosen strategy and it is assessed that Lenovo has considered a simple strategy for the purpose of promoting its brand. It has been identified that a simple strategy of one two punch is being considered by Lenovo whereby the company focused on building up its Lenovo brand and continue to strengthen its ThinkPad product brand. This brand strategy as considered by Lenovo has been extremely effective from the point of view of catering to the needs and expectations of the brand. This is mainly because IBM has its own distinctive image and at the same time, Lenovo has also built up its own unique identity in the Chinese market and is building up its image in the global market. This simple strategy of building both these brands individually has therefore been highly efficient to the company. In addition to this, Lenovo has emphasised towards combining innovation and efficiency element in it s brand and this has proved to be highly successful to the company in addressing the higher level of competition as faced by it. Overall, the branding strategy as considered by Lenovo has been highly effective (Johnson, Scholes Whittington, 2009). Analysis of Lenovos Strategy through Porter Five Forces: An analysis of the PC industry indicates that the bargaining power of buyer is higher because they have wide range of choices available to them in selecting a particular brand and this led to medium power of suppliers in the industry. The threats of substitute are also increasing with tablets and smartphones being introduced. However, the new entrant threat is lower because of huge investment and reputation required in achieving success in such industry and the competitive condition is extremely tough whereby global players such as Dell and HP are competing heavily. Within such market conditions, it is highly essential that the Lenovos strategy should be to include both the innovative factors and efficiency factor so that the increasing competitive conditions as prevalent across the international markets can be efficiently addressed (Hooley, Saunders Piercy, 2008). Lenovo Becoming a Global Brand On the basis of analysis of the case study, it is assessed that Lenovo has originally been a Chinese brand as it has started its operations from China. However, the company later realised that it needs to go global, and in pursuing such global strategy, there are certain problems that are evident in respect to Lenovo. These problems are mainly because of the fact that Lenovo is mainly a Chinese brand and it is often associated with features such as lower on quality. Further, the case analysis indicated that the company has never been able to compete on basis such as lower cost of products. This is mainly because by lowering simply on the prices of the product, it is likely that its products are associated with lower quality because Lenovo is a Chinese brand. Thus, this particular association of Lenovo as being the Chinese company has affected the company in an adverse way in becoming a global brand (Fifield, 2007). Overcoming Problems- Such problems of associating the company with China by its customers can be overcome through focusing especially on aspects such as quality. Even by way of adapting a cost efficient strategy, Lenovo could still become a major global brand, but it needs to focus on aspects such as innovation, higher quality etc so that it can create distinguished image within its customers. Conclusion This report involved the performance of a critical analysis of the Lenovo case study and the performance of analysis revealed significant level of findings. It has been evaluated that IBM has sold its PC business to Lenovo mainly because of declining performance of the PC selling business, and growing overall effectiveness in respect to the IT consulting services. Lenovo has been identified as the most efficient target customer by IBM because of the easy agreement to all the conditions of IBM by it. The analysis has also indicated about the factors that have explained the success of Lenovo prior to acquisition and it has been evaluated that the major factors that have attributed success to Lenovo are the ability of the company in providing cards that translates English language into Chinese and also the ability of Lenovo to innovate and provide highly efficient products and services to its customers. However, the case analysis has also indicated that there are various major challenge s that are evident in respect to Lenovos performance after the acquisition and these are identified in terms of cross cultural compatibilities between the management of both these companies, and also the issue of maintaining brand image of both these companies. The analysis has also indicated about the advantages and disadvantages of the branding strategies as considered by Lenovo and finally, it is assessed that Lenovo faced problems in becoming a global brand because it mainly comes from China. References Carter, C., Clegg, S. Kornberger, M. (2008), A Very Short, Fairly Interesting and Reasonably Cheap Book About Studying Strategy, SAGE Publications, London, England. De Wit, B. Meyer, M., (2005) Strategy Synthesis: Resolving Strategy Paradoxes to Create Competitive Advantage (Texts Readings), Thompson Learning, UK DallOlmo Riley, F. (2010). Editors Introduction: Brand Management (pp. xxiii xxxi). In: DallOlmo Riley, F. (ed.) Brand Management, London: Sage Doyle, P. (2008), Value-Based Marketing: Marketing Strategies for Corporate Growth Shareholder Value, 2nd edition, John Wiley Sons, Chichester, England. Fill, C. (2009) Marketing Communications: interactivity, communities and content. Fifth edition, Prentice Hall. Fifield, F. (2007), Marketing Strategy: The Difference between Marketing and Markets, Butterworth-Heinemann, Elservier, Harlow, England. Hooley G.J, Saunders J. Piercy N.F. (2008), Marketing Strategy Competitive Positioning, 4th edition, Harlow : Financial Times Prentice Hall Johnson, G., Scholes, K. Whittington, R. (2009). Fundamentals of Strategy. Essex: Pearson. Kapferer, Jean-Noel (2008) The new strategic brand management. London: Kogan Page Keller, K.L., Aperia, T., Georgson, M. (2012), Strategic Brand Management, A European Perspective, ISBN 978-0-273-70632-8 Publisher: Harlow, England: FT/ Prentice Hall Pettigrew, A., Thomas, H. Whittington, R. (2002), Handbook of Strategy Management, SAGE Publications, London, England Quelch, J,. Knoop, C. (2006) Lenovo: Building a Global Brand, Harvard Business School. Sharp, B. (2010). How brands grow. Victoria, Australia: Oxford University Press. Whittington, R., (2001), What is Strategy and Does it Matter? Routledge, London
Friday, April 17, 2020
Introduction In modern society, people are facing serious problems that have impacted negatively on their lives. These problems are social, economic or political problems (Davis, 2004). These problems have led to the deteriorating development in many countries of the world. The situation is severe in third world countries.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Modern Problems and Opportunities in our Society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The problems have caused immense suffering to the people living in these counties and huge amounts of money are being used in addressing the problems. The outcome has been vicious circle of poverty amongst the several countries. Main problems; their prevalence and how they have affected the Society The societal problems encountered today may be either natural or artificial (Guba Lincoln, 1909). The most serious ones include poverty, diseases (cancer, HIV Aids, diabetes, malaria), c hild abuse and molestation, drug abuse, corruption and racial discrimination, inequality, economic problems such as unemployment, rapid population growth and infant mortality among others. Despite the fact that some efforts have been made to reduce these problems the rate at which they are being wiped out is very low. A disease like malaria is a serious killer especially in the tropical areas that has claimed the lives of many people including young children. The other dangerous diseases include cancer, diabetes and HIV aids which are incurable. The prevalence of such diseases bring with them other problems, for instance many orphans who are left by their parents become dependency and are burden to the society.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Problems like criminal injustices are very common in many countries and the most shocking thing is that they are perpetrated by the ones w ho should be against the virtue. There is no fair treatment and this has been strengthened by the increasing corruption. Discrimination is all over and people are being deprived of their rights. Discrimination leads to misallocation of resources and people perpetrate poverty among the disadvantaged groups in the societies (Guba Lincoln, 1909). Poverty is another major social problem that is threatening the lives of many civilians. It is estimated that almost more than a half of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population is living below the poverty line. Child abuse and molestation has been on the increase. There has been several reported cases of rape amongst the young children, a major violation of human rights that is affecting the welfare of both the victims and those who take care of them. Drugs are being abused everyday life. Many youthsÃ¢â¬â¢ lives are at stake due to misuse of drugs. Drugs abuse bring with them both social and economic costs. The economic costs are incurred in the sens e that rehabilitation expenses and other medical costs are incurred in tackling the drug abuse related cases. The social costs are on the userÃ¢â¬â¢s side since there is serious deterioration in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Rapid population growth is a demographic and social problem prevalent in developing nations. This leads to competition of the available resources and high dependency ratio in those countries. This condition has led to the emergence of other social problem due to limited social amenities. There has been an issue of gender violence among some families, a situation that has been difficult to handle.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Modern Problems and Opportunities in our Society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Almost all the problems being faced in modern world are created by the human being himself and they are increasing at a very high rate thus compromising the betterment of human welfare (Guba Lin coln, 1909). Opportunities arising as a result of the Societal Problems Every problem calls for a course of action (Goodman, 1984). In the process of addressing the above-mentioned problems, some opportunities are created for the people who are involved. International development groups are emerging out to assist the victims of poverty through provision of humanitarian aid. They require people to handle the tasks and subsequent creation of job opportunities for those handling the tasks. Problems like drug abuse are brought about by the psychological problems and therefore they call for peer counselors and appropriate advice to the victims. In addition, rehabilitation facilities need to be put in place to assist the victims. All these require well-established institutional frameworks that also require personnel and specialized facilities that need to be established. Consequently, there is creation of more employment opportunities. In a move to combat several cases of human rights vio lation and criminal injustice cases, there is greater need to maximize citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare and enhance development in the society. There has been emergence of numerous advocacy and lobby groups to effect the desired change in the society. They are being led by human rights activists that want to see justice restored and the fundamental human rights are properly safeguarded (Davis, 2004). The efforts are also enhanced through international support whereby numerous opportunities are created and where people can share ideas and some job opportunities are created.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The most serious problems facing the modern societies have contributed to backwardness, injustices and reduced democratic space. It has been noted that majority of the problems are caused by human beings themselves (Goodman, 1984). Though the problems come along with some opportunities, the damage they cause to the society is huge and appropriate measures need to be put in place to make the world a better place to live. References Davis, G. A. (2004). Creativity is forever. Atlanta: Hunt Publishing Company. Goodman, N. (1984). Of mind and other matters. Cambridge, M: Harvard University Press. Guba, E. Lincoln, Y. (1909). Fourth generation evaluation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. This essay on Modern Problems and Opportunities in our Society was written and submitted by user Alaya Bruce to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Saturday, March 14, 2020
The MEK lubricant and de Introduction A lubricantÃ¢â¬â¢s de-waxing process involves removal of paraffinic hydrocarbons so as to improve the pour point of the feed stock. The pour point of oil is the lowest temperature in which oil can flow, pour or move when refrigerated or cooled without disruption under certain fixed conditions.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The MEK lubricant and de-waxing method specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More De-waxing produces high yields of products of improved quality base oils. Waxes require isomerization for their conversion into lubricant base oils. De-waxing processes create pure un-branched hydrocarbon chains without either aromatic contents or unwanted hetero-atoms in gas to liquid (GTL) processes (Gary Handwerk, 2001).During the de-waxing process, the solvent is subjected to a mixture of the waxy oil. In the catalytic de-waxing mechanism, wax components are reduced in the reaction to recapture the de-waxed oil molecules. A de-waxing process involves prior solvent extraction before the process is done. Heavy gas and oil from a refinery that is usually at very high temperatures is usually the feed stream. The gas is usually at high temperatures of 95 degrees Fahrenheit. This fact allows the feedstock not to crystallize. Shock treatment can cause formation of small crystals by the wax which would block the filter cloth during filtration process hence lowing wax recovery (Speight, 2010). The solvent is usually of equal temperature with the wax stream. It is then filtered through rotary filters. The primary rotary filter separates the stream into de-waxed oil or wax solvent stream. The de-waxed oil stream undergoes heat integration and continues to solvent recovery process. The wax or oil stream proceeds to the secondary filter. Here, it is separated into mostly solvent and wax with 3wt% oil content. The oily wax is de-oiled by re-melting to release trapped oil. The final filteri ng step is the tertiary filter. It separates waxes into hard and soft ones. Soft wax is recycled and hard one is re-slurred and purified to food grade wax. De-waxing products can be categorized into two: 1. Base oil which is used to make lube oil for automotive and industrial lubricants and for production of automatic transmission fluids.2. Food grade wax which is used to produce sealants. Crayons, cosmetics, foods and candles are also produced from this wax. LubricantsÃ¢â¬â¢ oil de-waxing methods Lubricant manufacturers may use either catalytic or urea de-waxing or solvent waxing. During the catalytic de-waxing process, there is usually selective removal of lighter non- normal hydrocarbons and also an even removal of normal paraffin. Urea de-waxing is normally used to produce low pour points using urea.Advertising Looking for research paper on chemistry? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This process of de-waxing is good for recovering refrigeration and transformer oils because no refrigeration is required. It is important to include a desirable solvent because urea has no MEK properties. The viscosity of the oil has negative results in its contact between oil and urea. Difficulties are encountered during filtration, hence the addition of solvents. MSDWÃ¢â¬â¢s process This process uses a two-stage cascade system. It is shaped like a selective de-waxing catalyst in the second stage (Fleig, 2005). This system is highly flexible and functions with hydrogen pressures between 27 to 207 bars. The waxy oil and the hydrogen are mixed and then heated. They are then directed to the top of the de-waxing reactor. Downstream, the by-products which are basically low sulfur distillate, high-octane, naphtha and hydrogen-rich recycled gas are separated from the lube base oil (Pujado Jones, 2006). Propylene- acetoneÃ¢â¬â¢s de-waxing process Propylene and acetone is the solvent mixture in this process. This process is adaptable to de-waxing plants that utilize propane instead of MEK (Fahim, Al-ShhafElkilani, 2009).Crystallization as a process is complex as it is usually determined by the rate of cooling of crystals. High and low cooling has an impact of the speed of the crystallization process and the quality of formed crystals. Propane is widely available as a byproduct in refineries and therefore its utilization is easier. This process leads to production of elements with low pour points, low refrigeration loads and reduced filter usages. Industrial technological research should focus on creation of catalysts that enhance the de-waxing of propylene and acetone instead of overreliance on products like propane. This fact would ensure that the performance of the solvent raw materials in this process is enhanced. MEK de-waxing method Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) is an anti-oil solvent and thus dissolves little wax at low temperatures. It is a wax precipitating agent. Toluene is an oil solve nt that dissolves the oil. At low temperatures, it maintains fluidity. A combination of major solvents is used in solvent de-waxing. MEK has become the most commonly used anti solvent in modern times but over reliance on it could lead to possible depletion of raw materials used in making it and consequent production of counterfeit products in the market. Industrial experts have advised that more research should be done to create new anti-oil solvents to complement the use of MEK. Nature of MEK de-waxing MEK has a poor solvent power and selectivity of paraffinic elements. It precipitates the wax leaving the de-waxed base oil. Studies have shown that the combination of toluene and MEK solvents in de-waxing processes causes an optimum wax precipitation of 40-75 v %. With increased MEK, the oilÃ¢â¬â¢s viscosity index increases but the solid point is maintained.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The MEK lubricant and de-waxing method specifically for yo u for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Process of MEK Flow diagram shows a de-waxing process The solvents used in this process are MEK and toluene which are mixed with the wax or oil stream feed. The feedstock is usually of high temperature; about 95Ã °Farenheit therefore, the solvent added should have corresponding temperature. The solvent of the same temperature is again added. This fact prevents shock treatment. The mixture is then filtered through the rotary filters which separate the stream into de-waxed oil or wax solvent stream. Process variables MEK is highly preferred because of its distinct anti-oil solvent characteristic. All the other solvents have almost similar properties but MEK or toluene combination is the most commonly used one in refineries. High solvent as opposed to oil use improves the process of filtration. A high solvent facilitates faster crystal growth reducing the viscous nature of the varied streams. At 100 wt. % MEK, there is a signifi cant wax recovery. High cooling rates have been reported to form undesirable wax that is hard to filter since it blocks the filters. Surface pressure exchanger The heat exchanger is used for crystallization of the wax. The process involves the use of the mid of the heat exchanger, the heated stream flows inside as the coolant flows on the outside. Wax crystals form slowly as the stream cools (Prestoris, 2004).Advertising Looking for research paper on chemistry? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fact shows that there is usually poor heat conduction between the waxy feed and the coolant due to the formation of wax crystals. The surface heat exchanger contains scraper blades which are usually inconstant rotation (Gary et al, 2007). Their rotation removes clogged wax inside the pipe. This fact allows formation of more wax crystals. Figure 1 shows a surface heat exchanger Vacuum rotary filter Vacuum rotary filters are drums with a vacuum inside them covered by cloth. This fact prevents entry of the wax into the drum as the oil seeps in. This process removes any oil that might have been left in the wax. As the drum rotates, the scrapers remove the wax. It is deposited into a collection basin where it is re-slurred and re-melted with more solvent. It is used in separation of aromatic impurities and naphthalene by precipitation or dissolving of the components. FiltersÃ¢â¬â¢ process operation In its operation; liquid is sent to tube units set below a drum. The drum cycles th rough the liquid and the vacuum pulls the solids away from the liquid into the drum pre-coat system. The liquid sucked through the filter causes the solid to stick to the outer surface of the drum. Figure 2 shows a vacuum rotary filter Maintenance and protection of the system Maintenance and protection of the system has to involve the maintenance of the various filters. The oil or the coolant filters has to be changed after every 500 hours so that they can clean away the contaminants. The oil separator has to be changed with change in oil for it to separate oil from air effectively. The drive belt has to be changed after 800 hours for effective performance. Other equipments used in this process include chillers with heat exchangers which gradually lower the temperature of the mixed stream of solvent and wax or oil to allow crystallization to take place. The others are the de-waxed oil and slack wax evaporators. Features of the vacuum rotary filters Their features include drum, val ve, drum deck, filter cloth, internal piping, agitator and the tank. These features are small in size and structure to facilitate faster operation. They are powerful and suffer low labor intensity making them easy to operate. The drum is supported by the trunnion which is set at the end of valve. It helps in formation of the vacuum cell at the bearing end. The valves are used to regulate the cycle sequence. Each portion is exposed to the vacuum, the dead zone and the blow. The valve contains adjustments blocks and fixed forms which creates the drying ratio in the filtration process. The internal piping can be single or double row piping to facilitate the channeling of the filtrates, steam and waste. The drum deck is separated into compartments waved to the vacuum or the rotating drum. The filter cloth acts as the cake tied to the drum face and itÃ¢â¬â¢s made from propylene or polyester. The agitator suspends the sludge material as the tank houses the drum and the agitator. Vacuum and rotary filtersÃ¢â¬â¢ process variables The process variables in rotary filtration involve temperature, pressure, solid content and particle size and distribution (Parkas, 2003). The variables define the present status of the process. The temperature is usually maintained high with operational temperatures going as high as 2000C. High temperatures are required for distillation, evaporation and thermal breakdown. Pressure is crucial and is maintained at 6 bars with the pressure filters taking different timing like 10 minutes for cake application and 8 hours for polishing. The solid contents take about 50% or more of the weight with the particle distribution being 1 to 2 microtones. Chillers These equipments are heat exchangers which gradually lower the temperature of the mixed stream of solvent and wax or oil to allow crystallization to take place (Lum, 2011). They are specially designed to scrap out the wax deposits in the heat exchanger surface so as to have efficient heat tr ansfer. Chilling involves direct heat transfer. Evaporators The evaporator is used in recovery of the solvent from the de-waxed oil and wax. Components include the motor which rotates the evaporating flask, vapor duct that channels the sample, vacuum system that reduces pressure, water bath for heating the sample and the condenser that acts as a coolant. Solvent recovery system The solvent recovery system supplies parts and services for recycling equipment, wastewater treatment and washing of parts. The process reduces the cost of disposing solvents and waste water charges. The solvent recovery system involves the following process as shown in the diagram. Solvent used The solvent de-waxing stem involves MEK, toluene, propane benzene ,methylene chloride, ethylene dichloride, sulfur dioxide and cyclohexane.MEK is used in industries in the dissolution of wax at low temperatures. MEK toluene propane benzene butane Boiling point(0C) 79.64 110.62 -43.7 31.1 31.1 Freezing(0C) poi nt -86.69 -94.99 -09.8 5.5 -2.17 Molecular weight 72.11 92.14 44.10 78.11 58.92 Vapor pressure(Torre) 74 28.5 0.13 0 o A graphical comparison of the various solvents as per the table is as follows Feedstock From Process Typical products to unit Lube base stock Vacuum tower Treating De-waxed lubes To Hydro-treating Wax To Hydro-treating Spent agents To Treatment or recycle Table : 24.2 Hydrocarbons Compounds derived Methane Methyl chloride, chloroform, methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, freon, hydrogen for synthesis of ammonia. Ethane Ethyl chloride, ethyl bromide, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethylene, ethyl acetate, nitro ethane, acetic anhydride. Ethylene Ethanol, ethylene oxide, glycol, vinyl chloride, glyoxalin, polyethene, styrene, butadiene, acetic acid. Propane Propanol, propionic acid, isopropyl ether, acetone, nitro methane, nitro ethane, nitro propane. Propylene Glycerol, alkyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, acrolein, nitroglycerine, dodecyl benzene, cumin, Bakelite. Hexane Benzene, DDT, gammexane. Heptane Toluene Cycloalkanes Benzene, toluene, xylenes, adipic acid. Benzene Ethyl benzene, styrene, phenol, BHC (insecticide), adipic acid, nylon, cyclohexane, ABS detergents. Toluene Benzoic acid, TNT Benz aldehyde, saccharin, chloramine-T, benzyl chloride, benzyl chloride. A new development in lubricantsÃ¢â¬â¢ de-waxing processes The industry is facing a lot of development with respect to technological advancement. Nowadays, there is greater use of the skill in solvent extraction. Industries are producing edible vegetable oil from oil seeds and protein units that are nutritious and economically viable. Capital investment is prioritized. The industry is making efforts in investment and money making through incorporation of various ideas in respect to this industry. The food industry also applies the PEG-NaCl system to fragment small molecules like nucleic acids and peptides. Information on DNA purifi cation is important in generating biotechnological purified genetically material. Conclusion The MEK lubricant and de-waxing method have proven to be useful industrial components (Favennec, 2001). More research should be done to improve their performance in industrial processes. The government should allocate more funds to safeguard industrialists from fraudulent people who sell counterfeit products hence reducing the marketability of the MEK lubricant. The de-waxing method has also proved to be a resourceful one and scholars should devise easier ways of understanding the solvent extraction system, heat exchanger and the functioning of the filters because it is important considering that health and ethical standards have to be adhered to. References Fahim, A.M., Al-Shhaf, A.TElkilani, A. (2009).Fundamentals of petroleum refining. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science. Favennec, J.P. (2001).Petroleum Refining, Refinery operation and management.Paris, France: Editions Technip. Flei g, F. (2005).Oil Empire: Visions of prosperity in Austrian Galicia (Harvard Historical Studies. Harvard, United Kingdom: Harvard University Press. Gary, J. et al. (2007).Petroleum refining: technology and economic. New York, USA: CRC Press. Gary, H.J., Handwerk, E.G. (2001).Petroleum Refining. New York City, USA: Routledge Taylor Francis. Lum, G. (2011).The negotiation field book. Simple strategies to help one negotiate everything. New York City, USA: McGraw-Hill companies. Parkas, S. (2003).Refining process hand book. Burlington, USA: Elsevier Science. Prestoris, A. (2004).Compositional Analysis of Naphtha and Reformats. New York, USA: CRC Press, Pujado, R.P., Jones, J.S. (2006).Handbook of petroleum. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Springer. Speight, G.J. (2010).The refinery of future. Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier Science.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Human Resources Management in Agricultural Industry - Research Proposal Example Actually this name was there in the last century itself. It is used to serve the interest of the employee and the employer. It has become very effective in recent years and both public and private organizations have benefited significantly, to attain greater benefits for the establishment in future. (Massy, 1996). In recent years, increased competition among organizations in different spheres, has led to improvement in the performance of staff and increase in productivity. Career opportunities have also increased considerably. Organizations are doing their best for training staff to increase their performance and productivity. In addition, they have plans to develop a strategy to increase revenues and reduce costs. This task has become the responsibility of the Human Resources Management Division, which has become the pillar of every organization. (Becker& Gerhard, 1996). In this study, I go across to a study of human resources management in a large agricultural company in Saudi Arabia to determine how the application of some strategies of human resources helped to boost performance, increase productivity and reduce expenses. The title of this research is "Training Program in Almarai Agricultural Company." In this paper I will explain the method of training of this company so that the employee makes effort to increase performance and productivity. The Department of Human Resources Management is n... The research accounts for answers to the following: Does the training program satisfy purpose expected of it What is the function of the multi-purpose training program What effect does the Saudi Arabian culture have on the area of work in the company What is the opinion of graduates about the training program in the company What is the opinion of trainers about the training program in the company The research background: The Department of Human Resources Management is not a manufacturing unit and so cannot bring any profit to the organization through its product. But the strategy can bring about higher production and put an end to waste of time, which will help a long way in increasing the production and ultimately bringing in better profit to the organization. The Fundamental objective of human resources is to increase efficiency, performance and productivity (Becker & Gerhart, 1996). One of the most important needs of any organization is to develop and improve employee performance. The organization, on its part, should consider the development of its members, which would have a bearing on the ultimate results of the organization. Some studies have shown that members of the Organization could have negative or positive influence on any organization through the performance and behavior. (Boselie, 2005) Human resources management is of great help to the organization as it can improve performance of the organization and the employee. If the organization can train the staff efficiently to gain exceptionally good performance from them, it can help the organization to compete in the market. The staff member must make every effort to improve in all respects during the training period. The trainer must ensure to